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Chapter

Classical Conditioning and Operant Conditioning

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 100
Professor
Prof.

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Description
Classical Conditioning: Learning by Association Learning-process where behaviour or knowledge changes as a result of experience -allows us to do tasks that we weren’t born to do-> simplest tasks to more complex -more or less permanent change in behaviour or behavioural potential that results from experience -permanent change in behaviour or behavioural potential results from experiences covers things like riding a bike and learning, forgetting, and re-learning a language, but excludes short-term sensory adaptions and physical changes that come from maturation Nativist-Rene Descartes-> almost all behaviour was reflexive or due to inborn ideas -we are born the way we are and our life experiences play little or no role in shaping behaviour Empiricist- Thomas Hobbes and John Locke-> humans are born with no ideas or knowledge of behaviour, they learn through experiences -Locke- ‘tabula rasa’-> blank slate -learning results from repeated experience Cognitive Learning-what students do-> reading, writing, and taking tests Associative Learning-learning through association -quick -due to fatigue in neurons and unconditioned and unimportant stimuli Habituation-diminished response to a stimulus after repeated exposure -slower process -associated with operational learning Classical Conditioning -Ivan Pavlov -learning when a neutral stimulus elicits a response that was originally caused by another stimulus -target response is automatic -a biologically significant event associated with a neutral stimulus -reinforcement is present regardless of whether a response occurs -behaviour mostly depends on reflexive and physiological responses -dogs would salivate when they hear a bell that meant food, after a few times the dogs would still salivate when they hear the bell but don’t get food, because of associative learning -Pavlovian Conditioning John Watson-believe that psychology is only a true science when you can measure actual, observable behaviour and to manipulate environmental factors that would change the behaviour -rejected the use of mentalistic concepts such as thoughts and emotions for explaining behaviour -argued that psychologists should determine the relationship between observable responses to observable stimuli in the environment -used Pavlov’s classical conditioning to understand human fear Unconditioned Stimulus (US) - stimulus that elicits a reflexive response without learning Unconditioned Response (UR) - reflexive, unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus Conditioned Stimulus (CS) - once a neutral stimulus elicits a conditioned response because it has a history of being paired with an unconditioned stimulus Conditioned Response (CR) - learned response that occurs to the conditioned stimulus Neutral Stimulus- stimulus that doesn’t elicit the response of interest Processes of Classical Conditioning Acquisition-initial phase of learning where a response is established Delay Conditioning-best way -there’s a delay between onset of the CS and the onset of the UCS Backward Conditioning- presentation of the UCS occurs before the presentation of the CS Simultaneous Conditioning- when both UCS and the CS are presented at the same time Trace Conditioning- CS is presented and removed just before the UCS is presented Memory Trace- impression, sensory, or short-term memory of a stimulus, left in the brain Extinction- loss or weakening of a conditioned response when a conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus no longer occur together Spontaneous Recovery-reoccurrence of a previously extinguished conditioned response -typically after some time has passed since extinction Stimulus Generalization-process where a response originally occurs to a specific stimulus also occurs to different, though similar stimuli -allows for flexibility in learned behaviour-> sometimes too flexible which is bad Discrimination- occurs when an organism learns to respond to one original stimulus but not to new stimuli that may be similar to the original stimulus Application of Classical Conditioning Conditioned Emotional Responses-consist of emotional and physiological responses that develop to a specific object or situation -John Watson and Rayner-> Little Albert-> baby is conditioned to learn to be scared of a white rat because researchers startles the baby when they see the rat, and associative learning is applied -explains phobias -healthy fear response is good for survival -> instinct Skin Conductance Response-palm sweat -when bodies are aroused by a threatening or uncomfortable stimulus Preparedness- biological predisposition to rapidly learn a response to a particular class of stimuli Conditioned Taste Aversion-acquired dislike or disgust of a food or drink because it’s paired with illness -Characteristics associated: -the time of delay between tasting the food or beverage (CS) and sickness (US) because conditioning happens when the CS and US is close together, but food positioning can occur in a long time after consumption -learned quickly-> one pairing of CS and US is sufficient -characteristics are important for survival-> flexibility offered by the long-time separating CS and US raises chances of acquiring an important aversion to the offending substance -happens more with an unfamiliar taste Latent Inhibition-when frequent experience with a stimulus before it’s paired with a CS makes it less likely that conditioning will occur after a single episode of illness -applied to classical conditioning too Evaluative Conditioning-conditioning that occurs in advertisements -conditioned response, a positive or negative evaluation of a stimulus Drug Use and Tolerance -classical conditioning causes some drug-related phenomena like cravings and tolerance -drug use can become conditioned stimuli that elicit cravings Conditioned Drug Tolerance-physiological responses in preparation for drug administration, appears to underlie this process -occurs when cues associated with drug administration become conditioned stimuli -drugs have the potential for tolerance-> decreased reaction occurs with repeated use of drugs can lead to increase in dosage Sexual Arousal - sexual arousal and reproductive physiology can be influenced by classical conditioning Fetish-attraction and fixation on an object -occurs when an object is associated with sexual encounters Conditioning and Traumatic Brain Injury - people with minimal brain function can be conditioned Paradox of ‘Diet’ Beverages -neural mechanisms linking the brain and the digestive system, humans become conditioned to food and drinks that they consume -sugar tastes (CS) sends message to the body that a high doses of calories (US) is coming-> helps maintain energy-> artificially sweetened beverages disrupt this relationship because it doesn’t fill the body with high doses of calories-> artificially beverages don’t promote weight loss Operant Conditioning: Learning Through Consequences Operant Conditioning-type of learning where behaviour is influenced by consequences -target response is voluntary -reinforcement is a consequence of behaviour -behaviour depends on skeletal muscles -Three-term contingency (Behavioural Analysis) -antecedent (context) -> behaviour (response) -> consequence of behaviour (effect) Operant- any behaviour that results in either a good consequence (reinforcement) or a bad consequence (punishment) Operant Response- any behavioral act that has some effect on the environment Consequence-outcome or result of a behaviour experienced by the animal exhibiting that behaviour -sometimes neutral, but mostly good or bad Processes of Operant Conditioning Contingency-consequence depends on an action -relationship between two stimuli, a stimulus and a behaviour, or a behaviour and outcome Robert Rescorla-dogs were trained to jump a barrier to escape an electric shock, one group had a tone to represent the shock was coming and the dogs would jump, another group didn’t have a tone and shocks were initiated without warning, another group had tones and shocks that were separately random which caused dogs not to jump because they were confused Reinforcement-process where an event or reward follows a response increases the likelihood of that response occurring again -increase or decrease responding as an outcome of an encounter with a stimulus -Edward Thorndike-> studied how long it takes cats to escape a puzzle box, the more trials the faster the time -B.F Skinner-> Skinner Box-> rat uses levers to get food (reinforcer) -> Operant Chambers -Three-term contingency: -situation
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