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PSYC100 13/14 Week 12.docx

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Queen's University
PSYC 100
Rana Pishva

Week 12: Memory Steps to Processing Data for Memory - Encoding o Perceptions, thoughts, feelings transformed into memory; created into a mental representation - Storage o Maintaining information in memory over time - Retrieval o Information previously encoded and stored is recovered Encoding Levels of Processing - Semantic processing o Meaning - Structural processing o Appearance - Acoustic processing o Sound - Levels-of-processing-effect o Encoding is improved when information is processed more thoroughly Elaborative Encoding - Actively relating new knowledge to knowledge already stored in memory Mnemonics - Memory tricks; strategies used to improve memory - Chunking o Organizing individual items into larger groups - Method of Loci o Using visual imagery to encode information; associations with specific locations, etc. Storage - Sensory Memory o Representations of the physical features of a stimulus are stored for brief periods o Two types  Auditory (echoic)  Visual (iconic) - Short-term Memory o Holds information long enough to accomplish the intended purpose for the information o Working memory  Active maintenance of information in short-term storage  Primacy effect • Remembering earlier information in a series of information  Recency effect • Recalling later information in a series of information  Verbal  Visual - Long-term Memory o Storage of information on a permanent or near-permanent basis o Explicit memory  Can be fully described verbally, are consciously and intentionally retrieved • Eg. Facts, events  Episodic memory • Serves as a record of life experiences; memories associated with a time and place  Semantic memory • Contains data, facts, and other information o Implicit memory  Cannot be fully described verbally, and of which a person may be completely or partially unaware • Eg. How to tie your shoes
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