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PSYC100 13/14 Week 9.docx

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Queen's University
PSYC 100
Rana Pishva

Week 9: Perception Pearson Online Differences and Thresholds - Just-noticeable difference o Minimum change required in the intensity of something in order to detect that it is now stronger or weaker than it was - Difference threshold o The just-noticeable difference between two stimuli - Absolute threshold o The minimum intensity of stimulation that must occur before a sensation can be experienced Detecting Faint Signals - Depends on o Sensitivity  Ability to detect a stimulus o Response bias  A person’s tendency to say yes or no when not sure if the stimulus was detected Signal Detection Theory - Allows independent assessment of sensitivity and bias - Independence of sensitivity and bias shown in receiver-operating characteristic plots o Illustrate how different sensitivities and bias change detection of stimulus Pitch - How high or low a sound is; depends on frequency of sound waves - How it is coded (place code) o Cochlea breaks complex sounds down into component frequencies o Components and their relative intensities are relayed to the brain through fibres of the auditory nerve o Each fibre is most sensitive to a particular frequency  ie. Tonotopic organization • Anatomical separation of frequencies in the ear - How it is coded (temporal code) o Auditory nerve fibres fire in synchrony with stimulating waveform o For lower-frequency sounds  Volley principle • Fibres take turn generating action principles Timbre - Depends on relative amplitudes of components - How it is coded o Cochlea analyzes complex sounds into components o Discrete parts of basilar membrane respond to components, detect frequencies and amplitudes o Brain puts information together to determine timbre Loudness - Coded by degree to which each auditory nerve fibre fires on every cycle of a stimulating waveform - Intense sound: nerve fibres attached to the responsive place on the basilar membrane will fire as much as it can - Soft sound: fibres will fire sporadically in synchrony with stimulating waveform Sound Localization - Pinna o Shape determines how sounds are transmitted into ear canal o Affects timbre of a sound systematically so we can interpret information about elevation of sound sources  Elevation • Characteristic of a sound source based on whether it is coming from above, below, in front, or behind - Timing cue o Sounds coming from one side of the head will arrive at the ear on that side first; sounds coming from the middle will arrive at both ears at the same time - Intensity o Head ‘shadows’ sounds so they are less intense at the far ear than at the ear closer to the source - Just noticeable difference in sound difference is smaller near the midline than at the side Visual Depth Perception (Cues) - Monocular depth cues o Cues to distance that depend on input from one eye o Relative motion  Far away objects seem to move slower, and in the same direction as your own motion - Binocular cues o Cues to distance that depend on input from both eyes  Motions that are made to focus on a specific location o Retinal disparity  Degree to which light from an object falls on a different location on left retina compared to right retina Visual Cortical Processing
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