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PSYC100 13/14 Week 17.docx

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PSYC 100
Jon Miller

Week 17: Self and Others- A Comparative Perspective Pearson Online: The Self - The Rouge Test o Test to determine development of sense of self by putting dot of red on the nose of the child or animal o Subject is placed in front of mirror and observed to see if recognition occurs o Mirror self-recognition in animals is not widespread, unlike in human children - Language o Children can refer to themselves verbally (ie. by name or pronoun) o Can describe their personal characteristics - Around 8 years o Children begin to evaluate and modify their behaviour o Self-concept becomes more nuanced because of autobiographical memory o Make social comparisons - Adolescence o Concerned with how they are perceived by others; drops when they gain a stronger concept of individuality o Experience imaginary audience (ie. being watched closely by others) o Distressed by contextual behaviour changes Theory of Mind - Influences on self-concept o Cultural  Individualist cultures • Focuses on the individual; tend to differentiate oneself from others  Collectivist cultures • Focuses on the group; tend to center around group membership - Theory of Mind o The ability to reason what other people might think or behave based on their motives, needs, and goals o Encompasses ability to understand differences in visual, philosophical, or experiential perspective o Theory of mind tests  False-belief problem • Used to determine children’s false-belief understanding • Container test o Asks children to reason what is in a container based on what is outside or inside of it, and adjust as they learn the truth • Displacement test o Explores how children reason through a change in location from two different perspectives o Precursors to Theory of Mind  Intersubjectivity • Ability to share a focus of attention with others  Habituation • Child learns to not respond to an unimportant, repeated event • Form goal-related expectations; understand differences in motives of others o Factors affecting Theory of Mind  Executive functioning • Capacity to control impulses, plan actions, foresee consequences, use working memory • Involves suppressing typical ways of doing things in favour of others  Perseveration • Switching strategies as new information is presented o Initial strategy may work, but when a change is needed, the strategy must change as well  Siblings • Interaction with older siblings means = more opportunity to reason about mental states similar to their own • Are asked to think about
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