Textbook Notes (359,259)
Canada (156,137)
Psychology (1,077)
PSYC 241 (97)
Chapter

PSYC 241 Ch13 Business.pdf

8 Pages
111 Views
Unlock Document

School
Queen's University
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 241
Professor
Roderick C L Lindsay
Semester
Winter

Description
PSYC  241  –  Business     Chapter  13   Business     Industrial/organizational  psychology  (I/O):  the  study  of  human  behaviour  in  business  and   other  organizational  settings.       Hawthorne  effect:  workers  that  are  given  special  attention  or  a  novel  environment  increase  their   productivity  regardless  of  the  changes  that  are  made  in  the  work  setting.       Personnel  Selection     The  first  step  in  selecting  personnel  is  typically  a  job  interview.  Meeting  face-­‐to-­‐face  has  some   potential  room  for  bias.  Luckily  meta-­‐analyses  have  found  that  workers  are  not  discriminated  on   based  on  race.  It  has  been  found  though  that  physically  attractive  candidates  are  hired  more  often,   although  this  trend  is  not  seen  when  an  experienced  manager  does  the  hiring.       Job  interviews  do  not  necessarily  have  predictive  validity.  Candidates  that  engage  in  self-­‐ promotion  are  the  most  likely  to  get  hired  even  if  they  are  not  the  most  qualified.       The  job  interview  can  create  a  self-­‐fulfilling  prophecy  if  the  interviewer  has  preconceived  notions   about  the  candidate.  In  one  study  interviewers  were  told  that  the  candidate  they  were  about  to   interview  was  not  well  suited  for  the  job.  These  interviewers,  on  their  own  accord,  asked   questions  that  sought  negative  information  as  opposed  to  positive  information.  In  general,  the   higher  the  expectations,  the  more  time  the  interviewer  would  spend  recruiting  as  opposed  to   evaluating.       Because  some  biases  exist  in  human-­‐conducted  interviews  there  is  some  curiosity  in  what  method   could  be  used  that  is  both  personal  and  accurate.  Lie  detector  tests  have  been  used  in  the  past  but   are  now  outlawed  unless  the  job  involves  large  sums  of  money,  public  safety,  et  cetera.       Some  businesses  prescreen  applicants  using  intelligence  tests,  cognitive  ability  tests,  personality   tests,  and  integrity  tests  (see  next).  Overt  tests  in  which  the  goal  of  the  questioning  is  obvious  to   the  test-­‐taker  can  be  faked.  That  is  to  say,  people  can  present  themselves  in  an  overly  positive  light   that  is  not  accurate.  Covert  tests  in  which  the  goal  of  the  questioning  is  not  obvious  are  not   effected  by  faking;  that  is  to  say  the  test  scores  are  the  same  when  the  test-­‐taker  is  honest  or  when   they  are  faking.       Integrity  tests:  questionnaires  that  test  for  honesty  and  character.  These  ask  direct  questions   pertaining  to  illicit  drug  use,  shoplifting,  petty  theft,  etc.       Structured  interview:  interview  in  which  the  job  applicant  is  asked  a  standard  set  of  questions   and  evaluated  on  the  same  criteria.  This  gathers  the  same  information  as  the  previously  mention   tests  and  prevents  some  of  the  self-­‐fulfilling  prophecy  also  mentioned  earlier.       Assessment  centre:  structured  setting  in  which  job  applicants  are  tested  and  judged  by  multiple   evaluators.     1   PSYC  241  –  Business     Assessment  centres  are  effective  because  they  use  more  than  one  method  to  predict  future  work   success  and  typically  involve  more  than  one  evaluator.  Applicants  may  be  asked  to  take  written   tests,  situational  tests,  and  role-­‐playing.  This  is  harder  to  fake  than  typical  prescreening  tests.       Affirmative  action:  policy  that  gives  special  consideration  to  women  and  members  of   underrepresented  minority  groups  in  recruitment,  hiring,  admissions,  and  promotions.       According  to  Nacoste,  affirmative  action  affects  target   group  members  (the  ones  the  policy  is  trying  to  help),   non-­‐target  group  members  who  feel  excluded  by  it,   and  the  organizations  implementing  it.  ‘P’  stands  for   procedural  reverberations.       People  can  be  angry  with  the  organization  for   implementing  such  policies  and  angry  at  the  people   who  have  benefitted.  There  is  less  hostility  when  the   organization  uses  “soft”  methods  of  affirmative  action   such  as  exposing  the  job  to  minorities  as  opposed  to   having  a  set  quota.  Also  there  is  less  hostility  when  the   policy  does  not  negatively  impact  non-­‐target   individuals  by  getting  fired  or  not  getting  promotions.       Studies  have  shown  that  individuals  who  believe  that  they  were  recruited  because  of  affirmative   action  devalued  their  performance  after  a  task  as  opposed  to  controls  who  believed  they  were   recruited  because  of  merit.       Reasons  why  affirmative  action  and  other  preferential  selection  methods  can  have  a  negative   reception:   • The  procedure  seems  unjust  if  certain  applicants  are  discriminated  against  just  because   they  do  not  belong  to  the  target  group.   • If  the  individual  feels  as  though  they  were  selected  for  reasons  other  than  merit  they  tend   to  devalue  their  performance,  casting  a  doubt  on  their  competence  held  both  personally   and  among  their  peers.     • Since  preferential  selection  is  a  form  of  assistance,  the  individual  may  feel  stigmatized.   There  is  awareness  that  others  perceive  them  negatively  for  being  given  special  treatment.       A  study  was  conducted  to  see  under  which  circumstances  preferential  selection  could  occur   without  causing  negative  procedural  reverberations.  They  paired  a  man  and  a  woman  and  had   them  complete  a  test  to  see  who  would  be  leader  and  who  would  be  follower.  The  test  was  bogus,   and  in  all  conditions  the  female  was  assigned  to  the  role  of  leader.  In  some  conditions  the   participants  were  told  that  the  female  was  assigned  to  leader  regardless  of  the  test  score   (preferential-­‐absolute),  or  when  she  was  even  minimally  qualified  (preferential-­‐minimum).   There  were  negative  intrapersonal  and  interpersonal  reactions  to  this  in  regards  to  evaluating   performance  and  fairness.  In  another  condition  the  partners  were  told  that  the  woman  was   selected  when  the  partners  had  similar  test  scores  (preferential-­‐equivalent).  Ratings  of  ability   and  fairness  rose  in  this  condition,  almost  to  the  level  of  the  control  group  (selected  by  merit).   2   PSYC  241  –  Business     The  study  on  the  previous  page  provides  good  anecdotal  evidence  that  the  negative  impacts  of   preferential  selection  are  minimized  when  the  target  and  non-­‐target  individuals  are  aware  that   the  individual  deserves  the  job  based  on  actual  merit  and  qualifications.       When  a  staff  is  diverse,  the  minority  staff  members  are  prouder  of  their  company  and  generally   rate  it  more  favourably  when  the  department  celebrates  diversity  instead  of  tuning  it  out.       Performance  Appraisals     Performance  appraisal:  evaluating  an  employee’s  performance  and  communicating  the  results   back  to  them.       Halo  effect:  failure  to  discriminate  between  distinct  aspects  of  a  worker’s  performance.  Recall   implicit  personality  theories:  we  assume  certain  traits  go  with  one  another.  For  example:  if  an   employee  is  not  very  productive  the  halo  effect  would  cause  his  supervisor  to  believe  that  he  is   also  bad  at  teamwork  and  creativity.  This  effect  is  exacerbated  when  the  supervisor  does  not   know  the  employee  well  and/or  a  lot  of  time  has  passed  between  the  observation  and  evaluation;   they  may  recall  one  unfavourable  behaviour  and  generalize  that  other  aspects  of  the  performance   were  lacking.       Contrast  effect:  when  the  same  supervisor  evaluates  the  same  employee  multiple  times  they   begin  to  compare  performance  to  previous  work.  For  example:  in  an  experiment  groups  of   participants  were  shown  three  lectures  and  asked  to  rate  the  teacher’s  performance.  In  one  group   the  first  two  lectures  were  low  quality.  In  the  other  group  the  first  two  lectures  were  high  in   quality.  Both  groups  saw  the  same  average  quality  third  lecture.  Even  though  the  groups  evaluated   the  lectures  independently,  those  that  saw  the  low  quality  lectures  rated  the  average  lecture  more   favourably  than  the  group  that  had  seen  the  high  quality  lectures.  In  general,  one  performance  sets   the  standard  for  the  next,  and  even  if  you  are  performing  well  relative  to  your  peers  you  can  be   evaluated  negatively  if  you  are  not  at  par  with  your  previous  personal  best.       Restriction  of  range  problem:  evaluators  tend  to  assign  numerical  scores  based  on  their  own   personal  trends.  For  example,  some  may  be  lenient  and  assign  high  scores,  others  may   conservatively  stick  to  the  middle,  and  others  may  tend  to  assign  low  scores.       Self-­‐evaluations  are  problematic  because  they  are  not  highly  predictive.  Individuals  tend  to  show   themselves  in  an  overly  positive  light.  This  is  especially  true  for  individuals  with  a  lot  of  power   and  men.  Thus  self-­‐evaluation  has  low  predictive  validity  and  puts  women  and  subordinates  at  a   disadvantage.       What  can  be  done  to  improve  the  accuracy  of  appraisals?     • Complete  the  evaluation  as  soon  as  possible  after  observation.  Take  specific  notes  to  avoid   losing  memory  of  the  performance  (and  therefore  falling  back  on  stereotypes  of   performance).   • Train  evaluators.  Make  sure  they  are  looking  for  the  same  things  and  using  a  similar  scale.   • Have  multiple  evaluators.  The  360-­‐degree  assessment  involves  having  superiors,   subordinates,  and  peers  all  provide  an  evaluation.     3   PSYC  241  –  Business     “Due  Process”  model  of  performance  appraisal:  consists  of  three  principles  designed  to  protect   the  rights  of  the  worker.   1. Adequate  notice:  standards  of  performance  are  clearly  and  can  be  clarified  by  asking   questions.   2. Fair  hearing:  employee  is  evaluated  by  someone  who  knows  their  work.  They  are  given   timely  feedback  and  the  opportunity  to  tell  their  side  of  the  story  if  need  be.     3. Evidence  of  job  performance:  there  needs  to  be  evidence  that  is  clearly  based  on  merit   and  not  biased  perceptions.     Leadership     Leader:  someone  who  can  move  a  group  of  people  toward  a  common  goal.     There  is  no  universal  formula  for  what  makes  a  good  leader.  One  thing  is  clear,  however:   leadership  is  about  social  influence.       Great  Person  Theory:  exceptional  individuals  rise  up  to  determine  the  course  of  human  events.   This  takes  the  trait  approach  to  understanding  leadership,  as  it  assumes  that  great  leaders  are   born,  not  made.       Shelley  Kirkpatrick  and  Edwin  Locke  proposed  that  leaders  in  the  business  world  all,  for  the  most   part,  have  a  stable  set  of  characteristics:   • Cognitive  ability   • Inner  drive   • Leadership  motivation   • Expertise   • Creativity     • Self-­‐confide
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 241

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.

Submit