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Chapter Bedroom Economics

CRI 100 Chapter Notes - Chapter Bedroom Economics: Lil B, Pew Research Center, Mitigating Factor

Creative Industries
Course Code
CRI 100
Dr.Louis Etienne Dubois
Bedroom Economics

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CRI 100 09/22/16
Week 3Readings
Registering bedroom economies: theoretical contexts of youth cultural
o “The terminology currently used in creative industries policy lacks rigour and is frequently
inconsistent and confusing. The terms “cultural industries” and “creative industries” are often
used interchangeably; there is little explanation of the difference between the two.” – Susan
Galloway, Stewart Dunlop
o According to Galloway and Dunlop, the way we define the cultural/creative industries dictates
what type of participants will be registered.
Defining the cultural/creative industries
Cultural industries:
generally refers to industrial-scale production; invented to embrace the
commercial industry sectors (primarily film, television, book publishing, music) which also delivered
fundamental popular culture to a national population.
o The creative stage of bringing cultural goods to market is carried out by a project team à
primary creative personnel such as musicians, screenwriters, directors; technical craft workers
such as sound engineers, camera operators; creative managers, who act as brokers or mediators
o Creative managers include A&R staff in the recording industry, commissioning editors in the
book industry, magazine editors and film producers.
o Hesmondhalgh defines core cultural industries as: advertising, marketing, broadcasting, film,
Internet, music industries, print and electronic publishing, and video/computer games.
o In Europe, the term “creative industries” encompasses craft-based activities of jewellery making,
fashion, design, as well as the industrialised and commodified industries.
o Any innovation (science + tech) of any sort in any industry is creative, and therefore any industry
is potentially a “creative industry”.
o Richard Florida is most well-known to link the creative industries with economic development.
à Florida defines creativity as a social process that is based in a variety of skills.
o The creative industries in the UK are linked with innovation theory and “big money” at the
expense of traditional arts or cultural policy; has simply become “it’s good for the economy.”
à This argument not only loses the cultural purposes of the creative industries but also the
ability to register any youth activities.
o Highlighting non-economic concerns could allow for a recognition of the role of cultural
production in the lives and employment of youth and communities.
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CRI 100 09/22/16
Week 3Readings
Theoretical models of small-scale production
o One of the difficulties in capturing youth activities in the creative industries emerges from a lack
of theoretical models to discuss small-scale creative industries.
o Raymond Williams chronicles 4 phases of cultural production:
i. Artisanal (handmade arts and crafts)
ii. Post-artisanal (artisanal production supported by patronage)
iii. Market professional (copyright, royalties)
iv. Corporate professional (employee that produces creative goods)
o The impact of the digitization of media means that contemporary youth are immersed in a 21st
century world of cultural production.
o There is therefore a need for new theoretical models to grapple with these new modes of youth
cultural production.
o Restricted production has been neglected by Anglo-American media and cultural studies; this
neglect indicates a neglect of a segment of the creative industries, but also an absence of
attention to youth activities.
Registering youth: redefining cultural activities
o Former leisure activities have become sources of income for youth.
o Cultural practice for profit is not taking over a space in people’s lives which were once seen as
simple hobbies or activities.
o There is a sprawling sector of micro-economics of culture which now traverses the boundaries of
social class, ethnicity and gender.
o Many young working-class people now become self-employed in the cultural field (as stylists,
makeup artists, DJs) as an escape from unemployment or in preference to an unrewarding job in
the service sector.
o There is a trend towards young graduates creating their own jobs due to a lack of available full-
time work à based in the low start-up costs that are associated with the Internet and
o Bohemian labour is harnessed on behalf of others, with fluidity in the boundaries of working for
oneself and working for others.
o The second half of the 20th century saw a rise in the “complex cultural industries,” in which
creative projects involve multiple people working at different levels; “project team”.
à However, when discussing youth cultural production, one youth may serve all the roles in
this project team.
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