ITM 102 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Web Development Tools, Grid Computing, Storage Area Network

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ITM Chapter 5- IT Infrastructure and Emerging Technologies
IT Infrastructure
-The shared technology resources that provide the platform for the firms specific
information system application
-Includes investment in hardware software, and services such as consulting, education
and training
Defining IT Infrastructure
-An IT infrastructure consists of a set of physical devices and software required to
operate enterprise
-Set of firm wide services include
-Computing platforms providing computing services
-Telecommunications services
-Data Management services
-Application software services
-Physical facilities management services
-IT management, standards, education, research and development services
Evolution of IT Infrastructure
1.General Mainframe and Minicomputer Era (1959 to present)
2.Personal Computer Era (1981 to present)
3.Client/ Server Era (1983 to present)
4.Enterprise computing Era (1992 to present)
5.Cloud Computing and Mobile Computing Era (2000 to present)
Technology Drivers of Infrastructure Evolution
1.Moore’s Law and microprocessing power
2.The Law of mass digital storage
3.Metcalfe’s Law and network economies
4.Declining communication costs and the internet
5.Standards and network effects
Moore’s Law and Microprocessing Power
Has been interpreted as:
-The power of microprocessors doubles every 18 months
-Computing power doubles every 18 months
-The price of computing falls by half every 18 months
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-Nanotechnology uses individuals atoms and molecules to create computer chips and
other devices
The Law of Mass Digital Storage
-The amount of digital information is roughly doubling every year
-The cost of storage is falling at an exponential rate of 100% per year
Metcalfe's Law and Network Economies
-The value of network grows exponentially as a function of the number of network
members
Declining Communications Costs and the Internet
-A fourth technology driver transforming IT infrastructure is the rapid decline in the costs
of communication and the exponential growth in the side of the Internet
-Figure 5-7: As communication costs fall toward a very small number and approach 0,
utilization of communication and computing facilities explode
Standards and Network Effects
-Current enterprise infrastructure and internet computing would be impossible without
agreements among manufacturers and widespread consumer acceptance of technology
standards
-Technology standards are specifications that establish the compatibility of products and
the ability to communicate in a network
Infrastructure Components
-IT Infrastructure is composed of seven components
-These components constitute investments that must be coordinated with one another
to provide the firm with a coherent infrastructure
Computer Hardware Platforms
-Client Machines (desktops/ laptops/ and PDA’s)
-Server Machines
-Blade Servers (computers consisting of only a circuit board with processors,
memory, and network connections that are stored in racks)
-Server Farmers
-Mainframe systems used as giant servers for enterprise networks and corporate Web
sites
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Operating System Platforms
-Microsoft Windows dominates the market of client machine software
-Unix or Linux widely used as server software
-Google’s Chrome
-Android is an open source operating system for mobile devices
-iOS is Apple’s Operating System for its mobile devices
Enterprise Software Applications
-Largest suppliers of enterprise software are SAP and Orcale (Acquired by orcale)
Data Management and Storage
-Database software: IBM, Orcale, Microsoft, Sybase, MySQL
-Physical data storage: EMC Corp (large scale systems), Seagate, Maxtor, Western
Digital
-Storage Area Networks (SAN’s): connect multiple storage devices on dedicated
networks
Networking Telecommunications Platforms
-The leading network hardware providers are Cisco, Lucent, Nortel, and Junipar
-Software leaders are/ Microsoft, Novell, Linux, and Unix
-Service vendors include Bell Canada, Primus, and regional carriers
-Growth of wireless, and Voice over IP
Internet Platforms
-Internet platforms include hardware, software, and management services to support a
firm’s Web site (including Web hosting services), intranets, extranets
-Internet Hardware server market: Dell, Hp/Compaq, IBM
-Web development tools/ suites: Microsoft, IBM,
-Software Developers: Macromedia/ Adobe, Real Media
Consulting and System Integration Services
-Even large firms do not have resources for full range of support for new, complex
infrastructure
-Software integration: ensuring new infrastructure works with legacy systems
-Legacy systems older TPS created for mainframes that would be too costly to replace
or redesign
-Accenture, IBM Global Services
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