Chapter 11 Writing Proposals and Reports.docx

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Seneca College
Business Administration - Accounting & Financial Planning
Business Administration - Accounting & Financial Planning EAC349

Chapter 11 Writing Proposals and Reports Information Reports: reports that collect data for the reader  Sales reports, quarterly reports Analytical Reports: reports that interpret data but don’t recommend  Annual reports, audit reports (interpreting facts revealed during the audit), make-good or payback reports (calculation of the point when new capital investment will pay for itself) Recommendation Reports: reports that recommend action or a solution  Feasibility reports, justification reports, problem-solving reports Following reports can be all three types:  Progress & interim reports – record work done & remaining but recommend whether to continue  Trip reports – can share what author learned during the trip but also recommend action Organizing Information and Closure Reports  These summarize completed work or research that doesn’t result in recommendation  Information reports include o Introductory paragraph – summary of problems or successes of the project o Purpose and scope section – gives purpose & indicates what aspects of topic covered o Chronological account of problem discovery, what was done, results o Concluding paragraph with suggestions for later action  In recommendation report – recommendation based on proof  In closure report – suggestions not proved in detail Organizing Feasibility Reports  Evaluates alternatives and recommends one of them – can recommend delaying action  Open by explaining the decision to be made, listing alternatives and explaining criteria  In the body – evaluate each alternative using criteria – can use compare/contrast  Readers wanting bottom line upfront – recommend in the beginning  If reader will find it hard to accept, delay recommendation Organizing Justification Reports Recommend or justify a purchase, change in policy, hiring etc. Direct Plan – When recommendation easy to accept  Indicate what you are asking for and why it is needed – link request organization’s goals  Give background of the problem or  Explain each solution – cost, pros, need cons  Summarize the action needed  Ask for the action If reader will be reluctant  Describe the organizational problem – use specifics to prove the seriousness  Show why easier or cheaper solutions not good  Present solution impersonally  Show pros more than cons  Summarize the action  Ask for the action Organization of Progress Reports  Good writers spend less space on details and more space explaining the value of their work for the organization  Straightforward subject lines – specify the project  May need to include a background section  As much positive emphasis as possible – shows self-confidence  Can be organized o Chronologically  Summarize progress in terms of goals and original schedule – 1/3 done  Have “work completed” heading  Have “Work to be completed” – can have preliminary conclusions if want feedback before writing the report  Show confidence in meeting deadline or request extension or limit project o By task  Organize information under various tasks you worked on – e.g. “Analyzing survey data,” “working on introduction” etc. o Recommendation  Recommend action – funding, changing direction, cancelling  If easy, use persuasive direct request pattern  If will meet resistance, use indirect problem solving pattern Organization of Trip, Conference and Workshop reports  Trip reports should be organized with the audience in mind to evaluate what the writer accomplished on the trip o Avoid enumerating a choronological list  Direct pattern o Introduction – where, when, why, and report overview o Body – what you achieved, how and the business benefit, costs o Conclusion – express thanks and summarize value Writing Proposals  Proposals have 2 goals o Get the project accepted o Get you accepted to do the job  Stress reader benefits and provide specific support  Proposal must answer these convincingly o What problem – define it as the audience sees it o How will you solve o What will you provide – products you will produce and how evaluate them o Can you deliver? – basically give a resume o Benefits you offer? – why should you be hired o When will it be done? o Cost of service?  Requests for proposals - follow it when responding to proposal – evaluators look only under the heads in RFP Proposal for Class Research Has  First paragraph – summarize topic, purpose of the report, its benefits, overview of contents  Problem  Feasibility – solution found in available time? How do you know?  Audience – answer these o Audience’s major concern or priority o Any potential objections o Audience’s take on advantages of proposal o Level of interest of audience o Audience’s prior knowledge about the topic o Anything needs to be explained? o Audience’s impact on content, organization, style of report  Topics to investigate – list of topics, conceptions, questions, problem explained and show how deeply you will examine each  Methods/procedure  Qualifications/facilities/resources  Work schedule – deadlines for tasks such as researching, analyzing, writing, revising etc.  Call to action – invite suggestions from professor Proposals for Action Recommend new programs or ways to solve problems – organize as a direct request and explain in detail how it will be implemented  Answer Questions  Overcome Objections Sales Proposals  Show reader benefits – present in you-attitude and psychological descript
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