Easter island is a speck of land thousands of kilometres from any other inhabited island. The monumental stone heads are known as moai. Easter island has never had large cities or even large populations. The island has no particular material wealth, and its inhabitants were not in contact with any of its neighbours until europeans reached there in 1722. Competing leaders erected the moai during periods of prosperity: competition between chiefs fuelled a cycle of construction of monuments. The ruins of structures built by societies that fried would define as ranked or stratified and. None produce evidence of the centralized bureaucracy that characterizes the state: 10. 1 northwest coast (page 274) Tlingit, haida, tsimshian, kwakiutl, nuu-chah-nulth (nootka), and coast salish. These were societies of hunter gatherers whose subsistence was based largely on fishing, particularly salmon and collecting shellfish. The societies were divided into nobles, commoners, and slaves that lived in settlements of large houses build of wooden plants.