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Osmoregulation and Excretion L.docx

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Biological Sciences
BISC 101
Timothy Swartz

Osmoregulation and Excretion L6 ch44Both involve diffusion Osmoregulation balances the uptake and loss of water and solute homeostasisosmosis active transport across transport epithiliaExcretion the removal of excess solutes nitrogenous metabolites and other wastesExcretion of nitrogenous wastes impacts water balance forms of nitrogenous wastes vary with phylogeny and habitatA diversity of excretory systems is all variations on a linear tubular theme nephridia malpighian tubules kidneys nephronAn animals environment dictates the osmoregulatory and ionoregulatoryHypoosmoitc in sea water and hyperosmotic in freshwaterMarine Fish body fluid hypoosmotic to seawater 1 Continuously lose water via osmosis 2 Drink large amounts of water 3 creates problem accumulation of solute In gills chloride cells actively transport chloride ions out and sodium follows passivelyin kidneys excess calcium magnesium and sulfate ions are excretedFreshwater Fish body fluids hyperosmotic to freshwater 1 continuously gain water via osmosis and lose solutes by diffusion 2 Excrete large amount of dilute urine 3 Compounds problem of loss of solutes Chloride cells actively transport chloride ions in and sodium follows passivelyWater balance in two terrestrial mammalsWater gain 1 ingested in food drink 2 Metabolic waterWater loss 1 Feces 2 Urine 3 EvaporationTerrestrial animals main regulatory problem is dehydration key adaptations to reduce water loss1 Waxy cuticles in insects lipid structure of birds skin 2 Produce small volume concentrated urine of dry feces excretion 3 Behavioral adaptation Nocturnality burrow dwelling use of microhabitats 4 Aestivation summer sleep to avoid hottest part of yearTerrestrial life without water Anhydrobiosis a dormant or survival state1A disaccharides replaces water to protect cells and membranes 2 Application for storage of human tissues without freezingMarine birds have plenty of water but too much salt another countercurrent exchange system
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