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BISC 101 (55)
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Animal form and function L.docx

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Department
Biological Sciences
Course
BISC 101
Professor
Timothy Swartz
Semester
Fall

Description
AnimalformandfunctionL1physicallawsconstrainbodydesignandleadtosimilarsolutiontosimilarproblemsconvtevltnAllanimalexchangematerialswiththeenvironmentAmoebasinglecellorganismitsentiresurfaceareacontactswiththeenvironmentHydramulticellularwithsimpleorganizationconsistoftwolayersofcellsfluidmovesinandoutthemouthandeverycellcanexchangematerialdirectlywiththeenvironmentMorecomplexorganizationCellnumberincreaseSAvolumeratiodecreasesdistancecellsvsenvironmentincreasesBranchedorfoldedsurfaceallowsufficientexchangewithenvironmentgutlungsSpecializedtransportsystemsandinternalinterstitialfluidlinkseachcellwithenvironmentInternalexchangesurfaceswitcomplexanimalsAnimalshavesurfacesthatarespecializedforexchangingchemicalswiththesurroundingsExchangesurfacesareinternalandconnectedtotheenvironmentviaopeningsonbodysurfacetheyarefoldedorbranchedtogiveawaylargeSAHierarchicalorganizationofcomplexorganismsCellsareorganizedintotissuesEpithelialtissue2connectivetissue3muscletissue4nervoustissue1DifferenttissuesareorganizedintofunctionalunitsorgansworktgtasargonsystemsCoordinationandcontrolofcomplexplansendocrineandnervoussystemsEndocrinesignalingmoleculesreleasedintothebloodstreambyendocrinecellsandreachalllocationsinthebodySignalingmoleculethroughoutthebodyhormonesonlycellsthathavereceptorsforaparticularhormonerespondSignaltravelseverywhereNervousneuronstransmitsignalscallednerveimpulsebetweenspecificlocationsinthebodyThetypeofpathwayusedisthesameregardlessofwhetherthesignalreachesacrossthelengthofthebodyorwhatSignalsnotthroughouttheentirebodyeachnerveimpulsetravelstospecifictargetcellsalonglinesconsistofmainlyaxonsDifferencesEndocrine1signaltravelseverywhereviathebloodstream2responselimitedtocellsthathavethereceptorforthesignalNervous1signaltravelsalongaxontoaspecificlocation2responselimitedtocellsthatconnectbyspecializedjunctionstoanaxonthattransmitsanimpulseRegulatorsuseinternalcontrolmechanismstoregulateandmaintaininternalenvironmentdespitefluctuationinexternalenvironmentthermoregulationosmoregulationConformersallowinternalenvironmenttochangewithchangeinexternalenvironment
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