BISC 113 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1, 2, 9, 10, 3: Vasopressin, Golgi Apparatus, Carbohydrate

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BISC 113 - Biology in Everyday Life
Chapter Study Questions
Chapter One Study Questions
Vocabulary:
Atom
Element
Nucleic acid
Protein
Carbohydrate
Lipid
Telomere
Enzyme
Metabolism
Gene
Allele
Gamete
Evolution
Natural selection
Adaptation!
1.1 How does biology affect your life?
1. Think about the issues that are raised in the case. Would you consider asking your partner
to be tested to see which form of the allele he or she has? Would you agree to be tested
yourself? Do you think that a person’s behaviour can be predicted by their genetic makeup?"
2. Search for the term “infidelity gene” on the Internet and find answers to the following
questions from these sites or from your textbook. What is the technical name for the
“infidelity gene”? How does the “infidelity allele” differ from other alleles at this gene? What
species, other than humans, show variation in this gene? Have researchers found
convincing evidence that genetic variation at this gene leads to differences in sexual
faithfulness?"
"
The technical name for the infidelity gene is AVPR1a. The allele for the infidelity gene is
different because it makes less protein for transporting vasopressin from the bloodstream
to the nerve cell. There has been research that strongly supports this notion in humans as
well as other animals. For example, in a study surrounding voles, it was shown that in the
species where the receptor for vasopressin was closer to reward centres, monogamy was
common. The research shows that variation in this gene leads to discrepancies in sexual
faithfulness.
1.3 How do organisms function?
1. Use correct terminology in answering learning outcome #3: Describe the relationship among
atoms, macromolecules, and cells, and explain how enzymes maintain cell function."
"
Atoms are the building block of all matter in existence, and there is one type for each
element. Macromolecules are composed of many atoms. Cells are composed of
macromolecules enzymes make it easier for chemical reactions in cells and organisms to
occur by setting up molecules to bind or break-up more efficiently."
2. Rank the following items from the living world from smallest to largest: human skin cell,
atom, DNA molecule, vertebrate, protein, electron"
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Atom, electron, protein, DNA molecule, human skin cell, vertebrate "
3. List and briefly describe the four macromolecules that make up most of living matter."
Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen"
4. Define the term metabolism. What is the basic role of protein enzymes in metabolism?"
Metabolism - chemical reactions in a cell that sustain life. The reactions of metabolism are
regulated by specific enzymes."
5. Briefly describe four kinds of chemical reactions that play a role in your metabolism."
Digestion, breakdown of food for energy; composition of DNA , putting nucleotides together;
growing new cells; DNA replication in cells"
6. What is a telomere? What role do telomeres play in cell aging?"
A telomere is a protective cap that is placed over the ends of chromosomes so they can
continue to efficiently be replicated and reproduced. Without telomeres, cells would become
damaged faster."
7. How does the enzyme telomerase alter telomeres? What is the role of telomerase in
cancer?"
Telomerase has the capability to elongate or shorten telomeres, depending on how active
the enzyme is. Cancer cells have overactive telomerase, which makes telomeres longer and
the cells immortal (because of their extensive protection from becoming damage).
1.4 How do organisms reproduce?
1. Define the terms DNA, gene, and allele."
DNA - deoxyribonucleic acid, contains traits and genetic information; gene - inherited unit of
DNA; allele - different version of a gene"
2. Name an organism that can reproduce by asexual reproduction. Name an organism that can
reproduce by sexual reproduction. Note: Common names are fine.!
Asexual reproduction: bacteria / Sexual reproduction: dogs
1.5 How does life evolve?
1. Define the terms evolution, natural selection, and adaptation."
Evolution - theory that explains how all organisms are related, how species adapt to
environment, and how new species arise"
Natural selection - mechanism by which species change over time; selection for survival in
specific conditions in the natural world"
Adaptation - genetic variations that promote survival in a species"
2. Explain why natural selection produces adaptation."
Natural selection selects for genes that allow species to adapt to their specific environments
in order to have a better chance at survival."
3. Explain what your text means by this statement: “All species are related.”"
All species are related because we all came from common ancestors that, over time,
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selected for genes that would help them adapt to their environments and in turn, created
discrepancies between species."
4. Explain why Theodosius Dobzhansky said, “Nothing in biology makes sense except in light
of evolution.”"
Dobzhansky meant that each species that has ever existed has common traits between
them that can only be explained by evolutionary theory: that we all came from common
ancestors.
1.6 What patterns of diversity are found in nature?
1. Your textbook says, “Vertebrates live in the deepest oceans, on the highest mountains, and
in the desert, the rainforest, prairies, and marshes.” Name a vertebrate that lives in each of
these places. Note: Common names are fine.!
Ocean - fish; mountain - bear; desert - lizard; rainforest - monkey; prairie - groundhog;
marshes - frog"
2. Write down the classification of our species, humans, for all of the same taxonomic
categories shown in Figure 1.22 for the leopard: kingdom, phylum, class, order, family,
genus, and species."
Kingdom - anamalia Phylum - chordata Class - mammalia Order - primates
Family - hominidae Genus - homo Species - sapiens"
3. How many of these taxonomic categories do you and a leopard share? 3
Chapter Two Study Questions
Vocabulary:
Controlled experiment
Empirical evidence
Hypothesis
Materialism
Prediction
Pseudoscience
Quackery
Theory!
2.1 How do we know how the world works?
1. In our modern day and age, the bacteria that causes childbed fever has been completely
eliminated. True or False?
2.2 How does science work?
1. What do you call a possible cause or mechanism that could explain an observation?"
Evidence (?)
2. Is this statement an observation, hypothesis, or theory: People who get enough sleep do
better on exams. Theory
3. Design an experiment to test whether students who get enough sleep do better on exams.
Make sure that you include all the components of the scientific method.
2.3 What assumptions do scientists make about nature?
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