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Chapter 4

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Simon Fraser University
Business Administration
BUS 237
Kamal Masri

Chapter 4: Hardware and Software Why do You need to know about information technology?  Knowledge of software and hardware makes us more knowledgeable about the consumers of technology. Where did all this information technology stuff come from?  First o Digital computing device: 1940 o Commercial computer: 1950 o Personal computer: 1980 o Internet: 1990  Early computers 1939-1952 o First computer patented by Eckert and Mauchly on June 26, 1947 o ENIAC computer could only run one program at a time  Mainframes: 1952- present o Mainframes – large room sized devices used by businesses and government o First generations used vacuum tube technology o Second generations used transistors  Smaller, easier to maintain, reliable  Also had central processing unit (one closet sized machine), short term memory (closet) and long term memory (several closets) o Ardumption was that companies would make their own software (none included) o 3 generation had an OS and multiprocessing  Multiprocessing allowed more than one person to interact with the computer by sharing the main processor o Many companies still use mainframes because they are designed for past processing and massive storage  Microcomputers: 1975 – Present o Intel and Texas Instruments developed the microprocessor incorporating CPU and short term memory into one silicon chip using integrated circuits o First microcomputers = MITS Altair 8800 and Datapoint 2220  No screen & programs  Microsoft wrote programming language “BASIC” and the OS “DOS” for microcomputers o 1981 the microcomputers (monitor, keyboard, programs, etc) came out o Sharing data required usage of floppy drive  Networking Personal Computers: 1985 – Present o By giving each computer an address, LAN enabled 30 people to share data by sending requests for data  Allowed sharing of data, printers, and other devices o WAN (wide area network), such as internet, came in 1980  Internet was designed to hook up mainframe computers  Summary o Moores law - in 18 months the price of a given integrated circuit will be half its current price or with the same amount of money, you can get twice as many transistors. Data storage, network capacity continue to advance so cheap but high bandwidth is becoming a reality o Difficulty with smaller machines is the ability for them to interface with the machines in a meaningful way o Goal with IT is smaller and more powerful while costing less o Power of computer is also in the power of networking (bandwidth continues to grow)  Bandwidth = rate computers communicate What does a manager need to know about computer hardware? PG 88 for graph  Input, processing, output, storage hardware o Input hardware devices – keyboard, mouse, scanners, barcode, microphone, handwriting done on a tablet o CPU  “Brain”  Selects instructions, processes them, performs arithmetic and logical comparisons, stores results of operation in memory  Greatest CPU = one that matches need o Main memory  Contains instructions for OS and other programs  Not all instructions held in main memory, rest of instructions is called upon by CPU o Special Function cards  Special items that can be added to enhance a computer’s ability, such as video card o Output hardware  Video displays, printers, speakers, etc o Storage hardware  Saves data and programs Computer data  Binary digits (bits) o Bits are represented as either 1’s or 0’s (like on or off switches) o Data in a computer is a bunch of bits  Sizing computer data o 8 bits = 1 byte o Measures characters and non-characters o K= 1024 bytes, MB = 1024K, GB =1024MB, TB = 1024 GB  Brief description of how a computer works o To run a program,  CPU transfers program/data from disk to main memory  moves instruction from main memory into the CPU via data channel/bus frequently used instructions stored in cache (very fast memory) o Memory swapping = when a program is opened and there is not enough unused memory, the CPU will delete a block of memory dedicated to something else and place it there What is the difference between a c
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