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BUS 237 (192)
Chapter 4

MIS Chapter 4 Hardware and Software.docx

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Business Administration
Course Code
BUS 237
Zorana Svedic

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Bus 237 Management Information Systems Chapter 4 Chapter 4: Hardware and Software Mainframes The first digital computing machine used in business and government Microcomputers Smaller than mainframes, the precursor to personal computers Hardware Electronic components and related gadgetry that input, process, output, store, and communicate data according to instructions encoded in computer programs or software. Input devices Hardware devices that attach to a computer; for example, keyboards, mouse, document scanners, and barcode (Universal Product Code) scanners Processing devices Computing technology that allow for the modification, storage, or deletion of data Central processing unit (CPU) The CPU selects instructions, processes them, performs arithmetic and logical comparisons, and stores results of operations in memory Main memory A set of cells in which each cell holds a byte of data or instructions; each cell has an address, and the CPU uses the addresses to identify particular data frames Random access memory (RAM) Memory that is external to the processing unit that is used for primary working memory in a computing system Output hardware Hardware that displays the results of the computer’s processing. It consists of video displays, printers, audio speakers, overhead projectors, and other special-purpose devices, such as large flatbed plotters. Storage hardware Hardware that saves data and programs. Magnetic disk is by far the most common storage device, although optical disks, such as CDs and DVDs are also popular. Special function cards Cards that can be added to the computer to augment the computer’s basic capabilities. Binary digits/Bits The means by which computers represent data; also called bits. A binary digit is either a zero or a one. Bytes (1) a character of data (2) an 8-bit chunk Megabyte (MB) 1024 kilobytes Gigabyte (BG) 1024 megabytes Terabyte (TB) 1024 gigabytes Data channel/Bus Means by which the CPU reads instructions and data from main memory and writes data to main memory Bus 237 Management Information Systems Chapter 4 Cache A file on a domain name resolver that stores domain names and IP addresses that have been resolved. Then, when someone else needs to resolve that same domain name, there is no need to go through the entire resolution process. Instead, the resolver can supply the IP address from the local file. Operating System (OS) A computer program that controls the computer’s resources: It manages the contents of main memory, processes keystrokes and mouse movements, sends signals to the display monitor, reads and writes disk files, and controls the processing of other programs. Memory swapping The movement of programs and data into and out of memory. If a computer has insufficient memory for its workload, such swapping will degrade system performance. Volatile (memory) Data that will be lost when the computer or device is not powered. Nonvolatile (memory) Memory that preserves data contents even when not powered (eg. Magnetic and optical disks). With suck devices, you can turn the computer off and back on, and the contents will be unchanged. Hertz Cycles of CPU speed Client A computer that provides word processing, spreadsheets, database access, and usually a network connection Servers Computers that provide certain types of service, such as hosting a data-base, running a blog, publishing a website, or selling goods. Server computers are faster, larger, and more powerful than client computers Server farm A large collection of server computers that coordinates the activities of the servers, usually for commercial purposes Cloud computing Customers do not necessarily own the computer they use, instead, hardware, software, and applications are provided as a service, usually through a web browser. The cloud is a metaphor for the Internet, which makes software and data services available from any location at anytime. Grid computing The concept in which several computers are used to address a single problem at the same time. Grid computing uses software to divide and apportion pieces of a program among several computers, sometime many thousands. Bus 237 Management Information Systems Chapter 4 Instruction set The collection of instructions that a computer can process. Windows An operating system designed and sold by Microsoft. It is the most widely used operating system. Mac OS An operating system developed by Apple Computer, Inc., for the Macintosh. The current version is Mac OS X. Macintosh computers are used primarily by graphic artists and workers in the arts community. Mac OS was developed for t
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