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EDUC 323
Alex Abdel- Malek

Educ 323 Ch2- Psychoanalysis: • Background: o Founded by Freud, debated the idea of the unconscious, one of the first (along with colleague Breuer) to explore “talk” therapy as a tx for psychological dysfunction o Freud had quite a complex family life (step/half siblings of all sorts of ages, parents remarrying) o Freud working with Charcot (investigator of hysteria where physical symptoms that had apparently no physiological basis) o Theories of sexual origins of neuroses and sexuality in children very controversial  Said a dream a psychosis (with all the absurdities)  Ego’s task to meet demands raised by reality, id and super ego  Most prominent theories of counselling and psychotherapy incorporate Freud’s ideas or were formulated in reaction to them • Basic Philosophy: o Freud pessimistic (against idea of human nature being inherently positive)  Said human behaviour produced by conflicts b/w genetically build in drives (self preservation, sex and destruction)  In psychoanalytic theory a great deal about a person is determined before age 6 • Children enacting genetically determined developmental sequence (which goes until age 6 normally and then psychological dev goes dormant)  According to him all psychopathology had roots in early development and arose out of conflicts among various psychic entities  Said strongest unconscious (unaware) forces are the most powerful sources of behaviour • Said that evidence of unconscious was slips of the tongue, forgetting, dreams • Human motivation: freud convinced that human behaviour driven by intrapsychic conflict • Central constructs: o Instinct theory:  Freud said humans have innate instinctual urges resulting from evolutionary heritage • Instincts must be expressed or indiv will become dysfunctional (freud said “ill”) • Life instinct= Eros, Thanatos= death/destructive instinct • Instincts expressed directly thru satisfaction of need, turning into the opposite, turning back on the person, repression (banishment to the unconscious) and sublimation (expression in socially appropriate way) • Life instincts thougth to be composed of those directed toward self preservation (ie hunger, reproduction) o Eros and Thanatos not always opposing, sometimes can fuse (Eros prompts person to eat which engages Thanatos and destruction to hunt) • Instincts unconscious and possess store of energy (Libido for Eros) • Instinctual energy always seeks objects in which to invest (normally ppl) o Attachment discharges nergy of instinct and creates pleasure o At birth libido directly on to self (Primary narcissism), next the mother (caregiver) object of libido  As child develops continue to invest life energy in other ppl/objects until as adult one finds mature love in investment of libido in opposite sex (lover/partner- not necessarily other sex) o Problems in dev lead to libido fixation on that stage of dev, rarely total (so do continue to dev in other ways, just stunted in some areas)  Later trauma can lead back to point of fixation (old unresolved conflicts resurface) o Topographic model: The iceberg approach  3 types of mental content- conscious awareness (not source of most behaviour), unconscious (responsible for most behaviour), preconscious (material that moves easily b/w conscious and unconscious) o Structural model: the big 3  It, I and over-me, later renamed as Id, Ego and Superego • Id= newborn baby, most primitive, immediate gratification, instinctual needs o No real contact w/reality (totally unconscious), operates on pleasure principles (seek pleasure and avoid pa in) o Primary process= pleasure principle as most basic, primitive form of psychic activity o Id pleasure is satisfaction of instinctual impulses thru discharge of energy associated w/them • Ego= develops out of the id in response to pressure from environment to restrain instinctual drives o Works thru Secondary process/Reality principle= satisfy id while preserving person according to environmental rules o Some parts conscious, some unconscious  Defences and processes related to dealing w/id are unconscious • Superego= internalized version of authority figures (conscience) and vehicle for ego-ldeal (vision of out perfect ego) o Repression: act of containing/pushing unacceptable psychic material to unconscious  Process is unconscious and always involved in symptom formation (tho not all repression results in symptoms)  Uses psychic energy and can result in person being “stuck”, fixation in developmental stage (ie from traumatic event) o Symptoms as symbols: (of psychic conflict)  In earlier writings always described them as expressions of unacceptable sexual impulses • Ie uncontrollable vomiting as desire for morning sickness/pregnancy  Symptoms could also serve as defence against unacceptable wishes • Ie glove anaesthesia where portion of arm paralyzed thought to be defence against masturbation o Defence mechanisms: tactics to prevent unacceptable wishes from emerging into awareness  Triggered when anxiety signals that unconscious material threatening to break into conscious mind (distort reality so actual wish doesn’t enter consciousness and interfere w/ego’s functioning/indiv safety)  Even relatively healthy defence mechanisms only able to discharge a fraction of energy attached to instinctual impulses  Identification= operating when qualities of another person taken into indiv’s personality (for males key to resolving Oedipus complex) • Can id w/characteristics of aggressor, or positive characteristics  Displacement= unwelcome impulse deflected onto another person (someone less dangerous than original target)  Projection= externalization of unacceptable wish  Reaction formation= when unacceptable urge transformed into it’s opposite (rage to love, sexual desire to hate)  Sublimation= one of healthiest mechanisms, funnelling of unacceptable impulse into a socially acceptable activity (ie rage into football)  Regression= when threatened indiv retreats to earlier stage of dev (typically one they’re fixated on) • Ie when child in trouble reverts to thumb sucking • Theory of the person and development of the individual: o Proposed (shockingly) that ppl inherently sexual and even kids have sexual urges, that we’re all inherently bisexual too o Psychosexual stages w/satisfaction of sex drive thru dif erogenous zones (too much or too little investment can lead to fixation of libido at stage)  Oral stage= mouth first erotogenic zone, nourishment from breast (self preservation and id satisfaction) • Nail biting, smoking and overeating for less intense fixation • More intense fixation focused on activities of taking (oral aggressive) and receiving (oral incorporative)  Anal stage= satisfaction gained thru functions of elimination • Sadistic stage, libidinal and destructive urges fuse to create sadism (according to freud) o Initially value excretions (give as presents?) o Harsh toilet training= stingy, orderly, precise ppl (anal retentive) o Excessive praise= overgenerous, messy and vague (anal expulsive)  Phallic stage= focus of sexual gratification becomes genitals and begin to notice dif b/w boys and girls • As boys begin to masturbate, fantasies about doing something of sort w/primary love object (Oedipal stage) o Become aware girls don’t have penises and think that they might lose theirs if in trouble (fear father) o Superego makes first appearance- developed out of identification w/parents (esp father, aggressor) o Id w/father compensates for loss of attachment to mother while defending against threatening father • Girls w/penis envy, thought it responsible for homosexuality in women as well as pursuit of “masculine” professions o Both dev courses seen as abnormal and continued quest for a penis o Resolution of female castration complex that results in “normal” femininity begins when girl renounces clitoral masturbation and seeks to sexually attach to her father as way to gain wished-for penis (becomes hostile to mother)  Longer to resolve complex, if at all, so thereby ltd in superego dev and prone to envy/jealousy, feel inferior b/c no penis  Girl remains hostile to mother until has child (reidentify?)  Latency stage= sexual urges repressed, tho some do remain sexually active (ie masturbate)  Genital stage= mature sexuality develops here, sexual instinct becomes integrated w/reproductive function • Health and dysfunction: o Healthy ppl have minimal repressi
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