− a system of beliefs regarding conduct in accordance with teachers found in scared writings or
declared by authoritative teachers
− often involving rituals, a code of ethics, and a philosophy of life
Religion and Environment
~ Geographer’s study religion along 2 primary lines:
− religious patterns across the earth
− religion in terms of expression on the landscape
~ Religion can contribute in a deeper way to humans shaping the earth
> what people do depends on what they think. Their actions depend on their attitudes. Religion
has a very strong role in shaping these attitude.
− Pinjrapoles – animal shelters
− Ahimsa is the greatest of religions: prohibits killing or harming animals
− Jivat khan – insect rooms
− 16 century France
− Trials against rats, charged with wilful barley crop destruction
− Rats even had a lawyer who had to give reasons for them not turning up for trial
− 1659 Northern Italy
− Caterpillars were charged with leaving the forests and trespassing o the crops
− Alaw was past that caterpillars could do anything but not interfere with human activities
− Medieval Europe 17 century
− Animals could be prosecuted, excommunicated from the church, tortured or sentenced to
>Attracts 4-5 million people
> Was a reaction against India's cast system
> Perfect your soul to the state of Moksha: absolute perfection
> central to this conduct is ahimsa (i.e. No killing of animals)
> Is Jainism typical of the east? No. But ahimsa is present throughout India to some degree:
vegetarianism, scared cows. There are also small Hindu groups which go to enormous pains to prevent
harm to nature.
~ Common ground
− All human groups satisfy their survival needs by taking from nature
~ Religion can play a significant role in this as it influences how humans view: nature and humans' link
View of nature
Animisn: Sacred immanent within nature. Nature is imbued (filled) with the sacred.
Elements of nature constitute spirits or gods: storms, streams, forests...
Monotheism: Nature is not directly sacres, The sacred is transcendent beyond nature. One god created nature and everyhting else
View of Links to nature
Animism: Humans see themselves as intimately part of nature
Monotheism: Humans see themselves as different, apart form nature: dualism
Roots of Dualism
Lynn White, The historical Roots of our ecological crisis
− root cause of environkenmtl problems today went back to Christianity
− White asks the question: 'what did hristianity tel pepople about their relations withthe
envirionmnet?' He argue that Christianity portrays human beings as God's supreme creation,
that everything is there for us to tke or use
− Humans are a culmination of God's creation;
− Humans are made to resemble God, completely different form everything else;
− Humans are the dominators of the world;
− Humans as the 'namer' of nature;
− Nature us under humankind's command
− But is the question 'what did hristianity tel pepople about their relations withthe envirionmnet?'
− The problem with this question, is a problem of intentionality
− Is the answer valid?
− There is a problem of representativeness
− Short summary of White's article:
− All creatures modify their environment
− But none more so than humans
− The catalyst was the marriage of science and technology
− Science is the theoretical uunderstanding of nature, traditionally by the upper classes.
Technology is the practical manipulation of nature/
− Naither is recent in thheir origins, skills in both have been accumulating for a long time.
− White places the 'marriage' in 1850, when science began to promote the power of
technology over nature.
− White thinks there was a basic change in outlook towards nature.
− He talks of an exploitive attitude. Why?
− Because society changes, becuase Christinanity replaced old religions.
− While animists did not want to 'divert a stream', Christians had no problem with it.
Transforming nature was not a sensitive issue for Christians.
− Science gained ground and eventually took over.
− Science suggested that if yo could make sense of creation, that would make you closer
to the creator
− In time, Science began to research the processes of creation. For example, Isaac Newton
was just trying to 'get close to God'. Paganism vs Christianity
− every element is nature had its own genius loci or guardian spirit
− that spirirt ahd to be placated before anything was extracted from nature, and kept placated
− Humans are separate from nature
− it is god's wil that humans exploit nature for theor proper ends (see Genesis Doctrine)
− Christianity allows humans to exploit nature with indifference to the feeligns of natural
White's view of Medival Humans and Nature
− the role of agiculture and the transition from the scratch plow to the furrowing plow that was
capable of turning the sod by the latter part of the 7 century
− this transition, argues White, separated human from nature, and it was faith in perpetual
progress, based in Christian thought, that helped create these changes
The Role of Christianity in Western Science
− From th 13 century to the late 18 century every major scientist explained his motivations in
− in the mid-19 century science and tech joined and gave humans powers which are ecologically
out of control
− White doubts that applying more science and tech will solve the contemporay ecological crisis
White calles for anAlternative Christian View
− White notes that we should ponder the greatest radical of Chritian history: Saint Francis of
− St. Francis' belief in the virtue of humility for the human species led him to try to depose
humans from their monarchy over nature
− White points out that ht eFranciscan doctrine of the animal soul was completely stamped out
− St. Francis' view of nature and humans rested on a unique notion that all things animate and
inaminate were designed for glorification of their transcendant creator: god.
− St. Francis attempted to substitute the notion of al equality of all creatures, incliding humans, flr
the prevailing idea of human's limitless rule over the rest of nature
− White proposes St. Francis as a patron saint for ecologists
The Roots of Dualism
− Is wWhite's thesis that our current ecological malaise is due to Christianity and its strong
connection to western science acceptable to you?
− Are there other aspects of Christianity that go against White's assertions?
− Why have so many other cultures, with different religious underpinnings, adopted western
science? The Human Food Supply
− Pessimistic predition by Thomas Malthus: population would always increase faaster than the
− Humankind has avoided starvation not by lowering the rate of population increase but by
increasing the food supply
New Crops and New Cropland
− New areas have been opened to agriculture (e.g.Australia)
− 900 million hectared of Earth's surface have been covered to croplands through