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HIST 130 (5)

readings notes wk 1.docx

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HIST 130
Luke Clossey

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HIST 130 Readings – Weeks 1-2 World ch. 13 p.412 - earliest records of Mongol peoples occur in Chinese annals of the 7 century th - “Mongol” and “Tatars”: commonality is that they spoke languages of common origins different from the Turks - 12 century: bands of formed alliances got bigger, menacing raids - “ crane catching”: prowess in war enabled particular leaders to build up followings in parallel with the old social order - 1206 : Temujin proclaims himself “Khan” (ruler) - 1921-1990: Mongolia was a communist state th - 13 century: cold spell may have driven the Mongols to dominate and exploit surrounding sedentary peoples - Tengri: devoted to the Sky as a supreme deity - 1258: Mongols capture Baghdad, killed the caliph (supreme Islamic political and religious authority - 1279: completed conquest of China - 1234: captured the Georgian capital - 1270’s: destroyed Song dynasty - GK depended on Uighurs for administrators and adopted the script for Mongolian language - 1246: led the pope’s ambassador through 3000 miles in an effort to forge friendship between Mongols and the Christian West - 1253: William of Rubruck is sent to see Mongolian way of living - Mixed pastoralism was essential (different animals) - Later 13 century: Kubilai Khan introduces himself to Marco Polo - Mongol Peace encouraged the use of the Silk Roads - 1276: Song emperor abdicates throne to Mongols  Mandate of Heaven - Il-Khan Ghazan declares his conversion to Islam in Persia - Egyptian slave army: Mamluks. Replaced ruler of Saladin in 1254 - 1260: Turned back the Mongol army at Ain Jalut (Syria) - Mamluk victory kept Mongols out of Africa, imposed Islam - 1211: Iltutmish takes command of Delhi (ex slave), chose his daughter as successor in 1236 - 1250: Mamluks take over Egypt - Western science grew more empirical - Roger Bacon: gave up riches to follow in God’s footsteps - 13 century: glass making - Mongol Peace: roads carried Chinese ideas and technology westward, opened European minds Note: These are literary works, not historical Find out the context of these readings. Economic? Political? Limited documentation: can lead people to make far away judgings eg. Mongolians weren’t able to get into China because of Confuciusm Analects of Confucius notes - The Master said, "The superior man may indeed have to endure want, but the mean man, when he is in want, gives way to unbridled license." (unruliness, lack of discipline) - A man should let his words be sincere and his actions honourable in order to be respected - The Master said, "The determined scholar and the man of virtue will not seek to live at the expense of injuring their virtue. They will even sacrifice their lives to preserve their virtue complete." - The Master said, "The superior man in everything considers righteousness to be essential. He performs it according to the rules of propriety. He brings it forth in humility. He completes it with sincerity. This is indeed a superior man."  distressed by want - The Master said, "Is not Reciprocity such a word? What you do not want done to yourself, do not do to others." - The Master said, "To have faults and not to reform them,-this, indeed, should be pronounced having faults." - The Master said, "In teaching there should be no distinction of classes." Known widely as a philosophical thinker, Confucius gives and explains examples of what it means to be the superior man. He considers virtue to be the most important possession of a man, even sacrificing life, and to preserve the virtue means to make the simple man to a superior one in terms of
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