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Chapter wk 4

HIST 151 Chapter Notes - Chapter wk 4: Arabian Peninsula, The Jewish Home, Civic Nationalism

Course Code
HIST 151
Paul Sedra
wk 4

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Cleveland & Bunton
As caliph, Abdul Hamid II stressed importance of Islam as primary bond between Arabs and
Ottoman State
Said Ottomans had corrupted Islam
From a distinguished family in Aleppo
Frequent conflict with Abdul Hamid's censors
Became prominent intellectual figure in Cairo
Ideological opening for Arabs to oppose Ottomans
Published 2 books: attacked Turks & non-Arabs and praised Arab achievements
Various Christian groups were competing in missionary activity and in opening schools &
universities & printing presses to print educational and religious literature (in Arabic)
Led to Arabic cultural renaissance
Notable missionary: Butrus al-Bustani (1819-1883)
Concentrated in Beirut
Al-Nahdah: Christian Arabs had economic and literary renaissance because of foreign Christina
missionary activity and printing press
Christian Arabs liked European intervention in Middle East
This presented another challenge for the Ottomans
Arab awakening brought together Christians & Muslims who found common ground in
Young Turk Era: 1908 - 1918
Triple Alliance (1882): Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
Threat to Ottomans because their previous rivalry had prevented them from
occupying large portions of Ottoman territory
Triple Entente (1907): Britain, France, Russia
European Alliances begin forming
To ward off threat from Triple Entente, Ottomans strengthened ties with Germany, a potential
Demanded restoration of 1876 constitution
Attempted to exercise control in politics
Condemned Abdul Hamid's tyranny
Patriotic, European-oriented exiles
Wanted to curb royal autocracy with a Constitution
Exile community
Secret protest society
It was uncovered by state spies and many members were exiled
Formed Committee of Union and Progress (CUP)
Discontented civil servants and military-medical academy students
Secret CUP-linked protest group
Loyalists and proud of Ottoman military tradition
Wage cuts led to disaffection
Felt Abdul Hamid was undermining strength and purpose of army
Wanted constitution restored
Disaffected military officers
Young Turks composed of 3 protest groups
Staged by disaffected army officers
July 24, 1908 - constitution declared in effect
Elections to be held in fall 1908
Sultan gave into demands - didn't challenge protest
Revolt of 1908
Week 4 (Sept. 27 & 29)
October 1, 2016
7:28 PM
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