Chapter 5 “Thinking about politics: Ideas, philosophies, and ideologies.”
Thomas Hobbs believed that humans are essentially bad. The in a state of anarchy humans
would destroy themselves. That it is not natural for humans to live in society, their self interest
will compel them to bind together for the purposes of mutual security and benefit.
Aristotle believes that humans by nature are social and political beings, that their happiest when
we are participating in political activity.
Rousseau believes humans are decent beings that have been corrupted by their socio-political
environment, where power and classes are uneven.
Those on the left believe that humans are fundamentally good.
Those on the right believe that humans are fundamentally bad, Christians are usually
conservative for a fundamental belief of Christianity is that humans sin.
Sigmund Freud believes humans are aggressive and impulsive. He thinks of religion as an
illusion, and that science and religion are mortal enemies.
Islam believes humans aren’t necessarily born bad or good, but have to follow the good path in
the name of Allah. Any deviation from the path is due to external factors such as pride and
Ideology is “a reasonably consistent system of political beliefs that aspire to explain the world,
justify certain power relationships, and to maintain or transform existing institutions.”
Communism Social Democracy Liberalism Conservatism Fascism
This can also be a circle for communism and fascism, for example, have many similarities.
Original Liberalism: People are good, self-interest is a good thing, autonomy of the individual to
provide for themselves, government provides necessary stability for growth and personal
autonomy, limited government power according to law, “laissez faire” economy, no universal
suffrage, equal treatment by law