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PSYC 100 (100)
Chapter 3

Chapter 3


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 100
Professor
Russell Day
Chapter
3

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PSYC 100 – EVOLUTION, GENES AND BRAIN
3
Influences from the Past
Biologically based mechanisms: Preprogrammed function and behavior in us
Evolution: Change over time where particular genes occur within an interbreeding
population
Natural Selection: Characteristics which increase the likelihood of survival over time
become more common in species
Adaption: Products of natural selection
Evolutionary Noise: Variations which neither hurt nor help humans
Remote Causes (distant past causes) and Proximate Causes (recent
causes) both influence the human behaviour
Genetics
Genotype: Specific genetic makeup of the individual
Phenotype: Individuals observable characteristics
Chromosome: Double-stranded, tightly coiled molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid
Adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine
Normally 46, sex cell has 23
Zygote: Union of a sperm and an egg
Genes: Biological units of heredity
Average gene has about 3000 ATGC
Only dominant genes show through, over recessive genes
Polygenic Transmission: Number of gene pairs combine their influences to create a
single phenotypic trait
Behavior Genetics: Study of how heredity and environment interact to influence
psychological characteristics
Cocordance: The similar occurrence of genes (may suggest some relationship)
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Psyc 100 Chapter 1
Adoption Study: Study of adopted people on characteristics with their biological and
adopted parents (biological vs environmental)
Twin Study: Study to compare identical and fraternal twins
Monozygotic: 1 egg (identical twins)
Dizygotic: 2 eggs (fraternal twins)
Heritability Coefficient: Estimates the extent to which variation in a group of people
can be attributed to genetic factors
Differences multiplied by 2
Knockout Procedure: To modify a gene so that it no longer exists
Knockin Procedure: To add a gene so that the being is modified
Neural Mechanisms of Mind and Behavior
Neurons: The basic building blocks of the nervous system
Made of: Cell body (Soma), dendrites, axon
Cell Body (Soma): Contains biochemical structures for the life of neuron and genetic
information
Dendrite: Signal receivers
Axon: Message senders
Glial Cells: Support and protect neurons from toxics
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