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Chapter 7

PSYC 100 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Operant Conditioning, Classical Conditioning, Observational Learning

Course Code
PSYC 100
Russell Day

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Chapter 7
Classical Conditioning
Acquisition of new knowledge, skills, or responses from experiences that result in a relatively
permanent change in the state of the learner
Repeated or prolonged exposure to stimulus results in gradual reduction in responding
Presentation of a stimulus leads to an increased response to a later stimulus
Development of classic conditioning
Neutral stimulus produces a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally produces a
Iva Pavlov’s eperiet icluded cradlig dogs i a haress to give food ad easure salivar respose.
Noticed that dogs previousl i eperiet started havig aticipator salivary response as soon as they
were put in harness, before any food was presented.
Dogs behaved in line with the four basic elements of classic conditioning
o Unconditioned Stimulus
Reliably produces naturally occurring reaction in an organism
presenting plate of food to dog
o Unconditioned Response
Reflexive reaction tat is reliably produced by an unconditioned stimulus
o Conditioned Stimulus
Previously neutral stimulus that produces a reliable response in an organism garter
being paired with US
akig dogs salivate to ell rigig, light et…
o Conditioned Response
Reaction that resembles unconditioned response but is produced by conditioned
After lots of time of pairing neutral stimulus with food, dog will associate that
stimulus with food and start to salivate
Basic principles
Phase of classical conditioning when the CS and US are presented together
o Slow, rises rapidly then slowly tapers off
Second-Order Conditioning
CS paired with stimulus that was associated with US in earlier procedure
o Stimulus will get same reaction as US, even if it was never directly associated
Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery
Gradual elimination of learned response that occurs when CS repeatedly presented without US
Tendency of a learned behaviour to recover from extinction after rest period
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