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Chapter 2

Chapter 2.docx

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PSYC 210
Russell Day

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Chapter 2 Basic Concepts In statistics everything we do begins with the measurement of whatever it is we want to study Measurementthe assignment of numbers to objects Examplewe use pawlick latency as a measure of pain sensitivity we are measuring sensitivity by assigning a number a time to an object a mouse to assess the sensitivity of that mouse Black depression inventory is the most popular measure of depression Depending on what we are measuring and how we measure it the number we obtain may have different properties and those different properties of numbers often are discussed under the specific topic of scales of measurements 21 scales of measurement Scales of measurementcharacteristics of relations among numbers assigned to objects Realize that statistics as a subject is a set of facts put together with a variety of interpretations and opinions S S Stevens defined 4 types of scales nominal ordinal interval and ratio Nominal scales Nominal scalesnumbers used to only distinguish among objects Not really a scale at all because it doesnt scale items along any dimension but rather label items Frequently these numbers have no meaning whatsoever other than as convenient labels that distinguish the players or their positions from one another Gender is a nominal scale 1male and 2female Could also use letters or pictures of animals Nominal scales generally are used for the purpose of classificationcategorical data Quantitative data are measured on the other 3 types of scalesOrdinal scales The simplest true scale is an ordinal scalenumbers used only to place objects in order Examplethe class standings of people graduating from high school OR Homles and Rahes scale of life stress These 2 examples of ordinal scales differ in the numbers that are assigned In the ndfirst case we assigned the ranks 123whereas in the 2 case the scores represented the number of changes rather than ranksNo information is given about the differences between points on the scales Interval scales
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