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Chapter 6

Chapter 6 Notes

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PSYC 221
Richard Wright

Ch. 6 - Long-Term Memory: Structure Korsakoff’s syndrome: a condition caused by a prolonged deficiency of vitamin B1, usually as a result of chronic alcoholism, that leads to destruction of areas on the frontal and temporal lobes and causes severe impairments in memory Anterograde amnesia: loss of ability to retain new knowledge Retrograde amnesia: the loss of memory or events that have happened in the past Long-term memory (LTM): the system that is responsible for storing information for long periods of time Serial position curve: in a memory experiment in which participants are asked to recall a list of words, a plot of the percentage of participants remembering each word against the position of that word in the lit Primacy effect: superior memory for stimuli presented at the beginning of a sequence (words presented first) Possible explanation: participants had time to rehearse these words and transfer them to LTM Recency effect: superior memory for stimuli presened at the end of a sequence Possible explanation: words at the end of the list are still in STM -All three types of coding (auditory, visual, and semantic) occur in STM -Although all types occur in LTM as well, semantic coding the the predominant one  illustrated by errors. Ex. misremembering the word “tree” as “bush” indicates that the meaning of the word “tree”, rather than its visual appearance, is what is registered in LTM there is evidence that double dissociation exists for STM and LTM. STM and LTM are caused by different mechanisms, which can act independently H.M. & Clive Wearing  lost LTM through disease & surgery, respectively K.F.  lost STM Types of long-term memory: explicit & implicit Explicit memory (or conscious memory/declarative memory) Episodic memory: memory for personal experiences Semantic memory: stored knowledge and memory for facts Implicit memory (or unconscious/non-declarative memory): memories that are used without awareness, so the contents of implicit memories cannot be reported priming: a change in response to a stimulus caused by the previous presentation of the same or a similar stimulus (ex. finding it easy to recognize words that are familiar or that have been recently seen compared to words that are rarely encountered procedural memory (or skilled memory): memory for doing things (ex.
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