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Chapter 3

Chapter 3 - Germany and the birth of new science

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PSYC 308
Kathleen Slaney

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Chapter 3 Friday, February 28, 2014 6:28 PM Germany and the Birth of a New Science Wilhem Wundt's Leipzig Laboratory  • Typically regarded as the f ounder of scientific psychology • Wedded physiology and philosophy and made the resulting offspring  independent  • Propagandizes for experimentalism  • Influenced by Fechner Wilhem Wudnt's two psychology: 1. Voluntarism  ‐ an experimental psychology that guided his work in the laboratory 2. Volker psychologie  ‐ nonexperiemental, cultural psychology  The goal of psychology was to discover the facts of consciousness, its  combination and relations, so that it may ultimately discover the laws  which govern these relations and combinations 2 factors of conscious experience  1. Content of experience ‐ the objects or events that are present for the observer 2. Apprehension ‐ what the observer makes of that content; how the content is  interpreted by the experiencing individual ○ Process not content  Research approach of natural science ‐concern themselves with the objects of  experience, independent of the subject; mediate experience • Ex. Physicist‐ measure experience via device (evaluate changes in the intensity of  a sound) Research approach of psycholog‐yi nvestigates the whole content of experience in its  relations to the subject and;  also in regard to the attributes which this content derives  directly from the subject; immediate experience  • Immediate experience  ‐ experience as felt by the individual and not mediated  through some other entity • Ex. Psychologist‐ study changes in the intensity of a sound would want to know  how those changes are perceived by a listening human being  Psychologist study the experience of the experiencing person. Their studies do not  come from analysis of objects in the external world but from an understanding of how  those objects are or are not part of the individual's experience Wundt: • Experience–a complex entity made up of sensations, associations and feelings • His goal was to identify basic elements in conscious experience and to  understand how the elements were organized into psychical compounds • Mind– an active entity that organized, analyzed, and altered the psychical  elements and compounds of consciousness • And Titchener  believed that all thought was composed of eithersensations or  images Voluntarism– indicate the voluntary, active and willful nature of the mind • Apperception–an active intentional process in which parts of consciousness  would have a greater focus or clarity ○ Focal clarity of attention Research methods: • Introspection– experimental sel‐fobservation Franciscus Donders – used reaction time method • Believed that if thinking involved neural transmission, then one could m
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