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psyc 325 - ch 11 definition - old memory

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PSYC 325
Mario Liotti

Memory in Older AdultsProcessing General slowing leads to deficits in those memory specific domains that speed theoryrequire encoding of new information and rapid retrieval of existing informationDont predict deficits in memory performance thats untimed or dont require recall ex selfpaced recognition tests should show no deficitsLike physical skills Memory declines occur because cant process new information as fastlead to declines in WM and decline sin speed of encoding when old have ample time to study or process information their performance may be no weaker than those of young adultMany cognitive taskOLD can perform just as accurately as young but each response takes bit more timeStudies measure reaction time show age related declinesspeeded decisionsex lexical decision taskOLD perform more slowly Salthouseask young and OLD to make perceptual comparison as fast as possible involving deciding whether 2 letters in different fonts cC are same or if 2 pictures are same Reaction timeyoung better vs OLDSpeed of processing also predicted performance eon host of memory tasks within each age groupOLDfaster at perceptual comparison tasks also did better in WM and episodic tasksPredictive across range of situationsex memory for music Inhibition Inhibitionalso ability to suppress retrieval of irrelevant information theoryYoungerbetter at blocking out irrelevant information parents cant concentrate with learning with music in backgroundtell children to turn music offOLDretrieve name of grandchildcant inhibit other namesneed more time to sort through additional names that accidentally retrievalwrong namehard to suppress other names also retrieval Directed Inhibition in memory that occurs when people asked to forget some forgetting information but not other information Forgetting studiesevidence of inhibition problems in OLDStudy some items then try forget them usually list of words experimenter sorry wrong listYoung better inhibit to be forgotten words vs OLDrdDecline in 3 theory of memory and agingdeclining use of appropriate memory strategic use strategiesOLDless likely to explicitly use strategies that will help their of memoryencoding and retrieval such as elaboration imagery mnemonics appropriate distribution of study timeFinding OLDcontrol deficits with respect to WM that might interfere with strategy useCraikOLD engage in les selfinitiated strategies when instructed to use itwill but left on ownuse less often vs young suspect frontal impairment lead to few strategies and decrease in metamemory abilityView no longer in favourbecause metamemory shows no or very few declines in OLD some domains which OLD showed decreased metamemory but general preserved metamemory abilitiesallow OLD to maintain high functioning Working 3 systemsphonological loop visuospatial sketchpad central executive memoryDeficitsmay arise from general reduction in processing speed in OLDslower in WMinformation less likely reach LTM systems
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