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Personality Ch7. Three Eminent Neo Freudians Sullivan, Horney.pdf

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Simon Fraser University
PSYC 370
Robert Ley

Ch7. Three Eminent Neo Freudians: Sullivan, Horney March-03-13 9:00 PM Introduction • Rejected Freud's viewon infantilesexuality--> focus on social interactions as core in developing personality Harry Stack Sullivan:Personal History • From Catholic, Irish-Americanfamily;grewup in Protestant community (isolatingexperience) • Only survivingchild of unskilledworkman(father); siblingsdiedin infancy • @ 3y/o, father took over grandmother's farm (dirt poor) • Father was withdrawn, morbidlydistant; mother may have had depressivesymptoms --> son took on roleof caring for grandmother ○ Mother complainedto Sullivanabout her unhappiness (saw mother as "semi-invalidwith chronic resentment for the humble family") • Very lonelyas a child (protestant community, farm is far away from things) ○ Had one friend who was 5 years older ○ Spent lots of timewith the livestockat the farm • Loner in school, worked hard to get approval/recognitionof teachers • Won scholarship to Cornell but suspended when he was caught mail-ordering illegal'chemicals' --> humiliatingand neverwent back ○ A schizophrenic episode may have ensued (hospitalized) • Went to Chicago Collegeof Medicine (forgiving of students' deficits & it was affordable) ○ Got a M.D. @ 25 y/o • Claimedto have studied psychoanalysis (but no evidence) • Worked a lieutenant (stories around this time also seem shaky) • At Washington, he, through WilliamAlansonWhite, met distinguishedsocial scientists, esp. Edward Sapir ○ But White felt Sullivanhad no future as psychologist • Moved to Maryland. Practicallyself-taught from experience, observation, readings--> established a ward for schizophrenic males & radical therapeutic regimen ○ Treated patients as respected people, rejecting viewof "crazy people" ○ Therapist as "participant observer" (expert, warm, not authoritarian) • Gave risefor Interpersonal theory of psychiatry • Was interested in study of race relationsin the South • Acted as a consultant at the WhiteHouse during WWI • Hissudden death (brain hemorrhage) had devastating emotional impact on his friends and colleagues • Anxious, lonely, witty, eccentric, warm, aloof Sullivan:Emphasis • AmericanPsychiatry and Sociology ○ Strongly influenced by Adolph Meyer(psychobiology parallel to Freud) ○ In Sullivan'swork, lots of influenced from sociology (Mead, Thomas, Cooley, Sapir)  Self dynamism (theory of selfas reflected appraisals of others) ○ Esp. in attempt treat schizophrenic patients: b/c they're withdrawn, they don't form transference relationship, ergo, they are hard to study • Interpersonal viewof personality ○ It is only through social interaction that we find individualpersonality Can't study it in an individual,but in course of interaction with others ○ Can't study it in an individual,but in course of interaction with others  Others don't have to be readilypresent, can be rememberedor fantasized  This includes hallucinationsin schizophrenic patients • Parataxic Thinking and Distortion ○ Changesthe viewof clinician-patient relationship  Freud believedit was mainlytransference ○ Parataxic thinking: a cognitive mode in earlychildhood  The assumption of a casual connection between events that are not rationally examined/confirmed  e.g.,when mother holds P she is tense --> P thinks selfis a bad child ○ Parataxic distortion: a moreextreme form of parataxic thinking, in adulthood  When P attaches to analyst based on erroneous identification of analyst with significantothers in experience  e.g.,therapist is person of authority, just likemy father --> I HATE YOU b/c you'll probably try to tell me what to do & put me in my place  Not just projection, b/c therapist influences what P does  --> P realizethey're not likethat --> understanding • The self ○ Develops in earlychildhood, out of interaction with parents ○ Self dynamism: pursuit of security (attain comfort/relieffrom rejection of others)  And organizesinterpersonal behaviours towards this goal • Needs ○ One issecurity ○ The other is satisfaction (bodily needs)  e.g.,lust ○ Success in striving for security determineshow we feel about ourselves Sullivan:Major concepts of the interpersonal theory of psychiatry • Tension ○ Like Freud, tension reduction isa drive(but not the sexual parts) ○ Goal is euphoria: tensionlessbliss, likea dreamlesssleep  Vs. absolute terror (threat to body/security) --> anxiety (likein schizophrenia) ○ Hightension when bodily needs have to be met (oxygen, warmth, sleep, sex)  Accompanied by mental state of satisfaction when need is met ○ Anxiety:fear of disapproval  Ex. Mother is tense when infant cries --> conveys disapproval --> "I'm a bad infant/person" ○ Self system: developedto reduce anxiety, regainsecurity • Dynamisms ○ The process of energytransformation (of physical energyinto feelings,thoughts, behaviours)  Basic unit of personality ○ Recurrent, not static (changeable), transformation of energyinto particular aspects of behaviour ○ Emerge ininterpersonal relations (vs. instinct) ○ Protects P from threats to security (developwhen first awareof dis/approval) ○ Deal with anxiety by (1) selectiveattention  Direct attention awayfrom perceptions/senses that threaten security  Ex. Hear people say meanthings, but don't attend to the meaning of it ○ Deal with anxiety by (2) dissociation  Deny anxiety laden experiences--> may be expressed in dreams ○ Deal with anxiety by (3) regression Sub-dynamism:hate, paranoid (rooted in inferiority& transfer of blame), oral, genial lust ○ Sub-dynamism:hate, paranoid (rooted in inferiority& transfer of blame), oral, genial lust • CognitiveProcessing ○ Prototaxic: kind of undifferentiated stream of conscious  Raw, moment to moment, noticing stimuli  Not yet ableto distinguishme-other  Sometimeoccur in profoundly disturbed schizophrenic ○ Parataxic: the first cry as signal/communication  Primitivelanguage--> distinguishself-others  As if association between events is done without cognition  e.g.,reacting in fear/distrust of people of different skin colour  e.g.,superstition; those prone to anxiety  Very autistic/personal innature ○ Syntax: logical,operational, confirmable by experience of others  Usewords/symbol to communicate --> acquire knowledgeinterpersonally ○ Images,interpretation of self/others occupy our minds  Personification: reflects our need in satisfyingneeds & guarding security  Good me/ bad me  May be fantasized (ex. Stereotypes, ideal mate) ○ Dreams are for maintaining sleep, the peoplein dreams are fantasized, projections of impulses  Discharge of tension of the day b/c self is lesswatchful in dreams • Communication ○ Influenced & is influenced by his work with schizophrenic patients ○ Not all communication is verbal/consensual ○ Syntax is basic for social communication, but sometimeswe speak opaquely/idiosyncratically  Hallmarkof schizophrenia (parataxic thinking: taught to only use it occasionally--> "translate" private meaning to something people can understand ○ Before communication comes, there's development of emotions  Empathy: mother convey comfort/security or tension/anxiety • Personalitydevelopment ○ Instead of stages, there are epoch/era (continues after formativepsychosexual stages, depends on childrearing,which allowsfor cultural difference) ○ Infancy  Birth, helpless,dependent  Suckling: abilityto notice object/movement of importance □ Satisfieshunger/thirst  Mother's nipple= meaningfulsymbol (protoconcept) --> associated to comfort and anxiety  Communicatevia empathy (apprehension of mother's state) □ Peak at 6-26 m/o □ Responsivenessof mother to infants' needs (attachment)  Shifts from prototaxic to parataxic □ Developing understanding of self as good/bad □ Appearance of self-dynamism(organizeself perception, cope with disapproval/anxiety)  Oral dynamism:channeling energyinto action of drinking milkfrom mother □ Alsothumb sucking (to reduce tension) & crying & baby talk ○ Childhood  Shift from being cared for to being socialized □ Exposure to culture (toilet training, politeness, control emotion) □ Exposure to culture (toilet training, politeness, control emotion)  Develop syntax thought (communicate thoughts) --> only supplants parataxic (it's still there)  Self dynamism:more organized, considers gender norms □ Dramatization: role play as adult, see people/rolessymbolically  May develop preoccupation (w/ disapproval)if parents are harsh/anxious  Learn to sublimate (replace/combinethoughts/behaviours that are anxiety-inducing with those that gainapproval) □ Clownaround when mad at teacher, disruptivebut make teacher laughalso □ Learn to manipulate parents/others in pursuit of security  Malevolenttransformation: when security is badly threatened, child may retreat from affectionate contact, think the liveamong hateful enemies ○ JuvenileEra  (milestone)compeers: abilityto cooperate with other children/peers  Self dynamism:selfis dependent person; compares selfto others; need to belong  Disciplineimpulses& separate fantasy-reality  More skilledat manipulatingothers (interpersonal skill)  Form stereotype (teacher's pet, crybaby) --> parataxic  Many adults are still in this phase (may pas through to the next phase but maintain juvenileselfdynamism) ○ Preadolescence  Gradual transition, awayfrom ego centrism towards full social state  Increase capacity to love □ Usuallythose similarto ourselves (splitgender in groups)  Intimacy/sharingpossible b/c of protected environment (school, family,better understanding of parent) ○ Early Adolescence  Onset of puberty & genital lust  Socializedto the cultural attitude/norm of sex □ If ridiculedgreatly, it'll threaten security and set back development ○ Late Adolescence  Lust dynamism:lust x intimacy  Decide on lifepath (further education? Job?)  May regress to j
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