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PSYC 370 Chapter Notes -Self-Hatred, Weaning, Virtuous Circle And Vicious Circle

8 pages61 viewsWinter 2013

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 370
Professor
Robert Ley

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Rejected Freud's view on infantile sexuality --> focus on social interactions as core in developing
personality
Introduction
From Catholic, Irish-American family; grew up in Protestant community (isolating experience)
Only surviving child of unskilled workman (father); siblings died in infancy
@ 3y/o, father took over grandmother's farm (dirt poor)
Mother complained to Sullivan about her unhappiness (saw mother as "semi-invalid with
chronic resentment for the humble family")
Father was withdrawn, morbidly distant; mother may have had depressive symptoms --> son took
on role of caring for grandmother
Had one friend who was 5 years older
Spent lots of time with the livestock at the farm
Very lonely as a child (protestant community, farm is far away from things)
Loner in school, worked hard to get approval/recognition of teachers
A schizophrenic episode may have ensued (hospitalized)
Won scholarship to Cornell but suspended when he was caught mail-ordering illegal 'chemicals' -->
humiliating and never went back
Got a M.D. @ 25 y/o
Went to Chicago College of Medicine (forgiving of students' deficits & it was affordable)
Claimed to have studied psychoanalysis (but no evidence)
Worked a lieutenant (stories around this time also seem shaky)
But White felt Sullivan had no future as psychologist
At Washington, he, through William Alanson White, met distinguished social scientists, esp.
Edward Sapir
Treated patients as respected people, rejecting view of "crazy people"
Therapist as "participant observer" (expert, warm, not authoritarian)
Moved to Maryland. Practically self-taught from experience, observation, readings --> established
a ward for schizophrenic males & radical therapeutic regimen
Gave rise for Interpersonal theory of psychiatry
Was interested in study of race relations in the South
Acted as a consultant at the White House during WWI
His sudden death (brain hemorrhage) had devastating emotional impact on his friends and
colleagues
Anxious, lonely, witty, eccentric, warm, aloof
Harry Stack Sullivan: Personal History
Strongly influenced by Adolph Meyer (psychobiology parallel to Freud)
Self dynamism (theory of self as reflected appraisals of others)
In Sullivan's work, lots of influenced from sociology (Mead, Thomas, Cooley, Sapir)
Esp. in attempt treat schizophrenic patients: b/c they're withdrawn, they don't form
transference relationship, ergo, they are hard to study
American Psychiatry and Sociology
It is only through social interaction that we find individual personality
Can't study it in an individual, but in course of interaction with others
Interpersonal view of personality
Sullivan: Emphasis
Ch7. Three Eminent Neo Freudians: Sullivan, Horney
March-03-13
9:00 PM
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Others don't have to be readily present, can be remembered or fantasized
This includes hallucinations in schizophrenic patients
Can't study it in an individual, but in course of interaction with others
Freud believed it was mainly transference
Changes the view of clinician-patient relationship
The assumption of a casual connection between events that are not rationally
examined/confirmed
e.g., when mother holds P she is tense --> P thinks self is a bad child
Parataxic thinking: a cognitive mode in early childhood
When P attaches to analyst based on erroneous identification of analyst with
significant others in experience
e.g., therapist is person of authority, just like my father --> I HATE YOU b/c you'll
probably try to tell me what to do & put me in my place
Not just projection, b/c therapist influences what P does
--> P realize they're not like that --> understanding
Parataxic distortion: a more extreme form of parataxic thinking, in adulthood
Parataxic Thinking and Distortion
Develops in early childhood, out of interaction with parents
And organizes interpersonal behaviours towards this goal
Self dynamism: pursuit of security (attain comfort/relief from rejection of others)
The self
One is security
e.g., lust
The other is satisfaction (bodily needs)
Success in striving for security determines how we feel about ourselves
Needs
Like Freud, tension reduction is a drive (but not the sexual parts)
Vs. absolute terror (threat to body/security) --> anxiety (like in schizophrenia)
Goal is euphoria: tensionless bliss, like a dreamless sleep
Accompanied by mental state of satisfaction when need is met
High tension when bodily needs have to be met (oxygen, warmth, sleep, sex)
Ex. Mother is tense when infant cries --> conveys disapproval --> "I'm a bad
infant/person"
Anxiety: fear of disapproval
Self system: developed to reduce anxiety, regain security
Tension
Basic unit of personality
The process of energy transformation (of physical energy into feelings, thoughts,
behaviours)
Recurrent, not static (changeable), transformation of energy into particular aspects of
behaviour
Emerge in interpersonal relations (vs. instinct)
Protects P from threats to security (develop when first aware of dis/approval)
Direct attention away from perceptions/senses that threaten security
Ex. Hear people say mean things, but don't attend to the meaning of it
Deal with anxiety by (1) selective attention
Deny anxiety laden experiences --> may be expressed in dreams
Deal with anxiety by (2) dissociation
Deal with anxiety by (3) regression
Sub
-
dynamism: hate, paranoid (rooted in inferiority & transfer of blame), oral, genial lust
Dynamisms
Sullivan: Major concepts of the interpersonal theory of psychiatry
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Sub
-
dynamism: hate, paranoid (rooted in inferiority & transfer of blame), oral, genial lust
Raw, moment to moment, noticing stimuli
Not yet able to distinguish me-other
Sometime occur in profoundly disturbed schizophrenic
Prototaxic: kind of undifferentiated stream of conscious
Primitive language --> distinguish self-others
As if association between events is done without cognition
e.g., reacting in fear/distrust of people of different skin colour
e.g., superstition; those prone to anxiety
Very autistic/personal in nature
Parataxic: the first cry as signal/communication
Use words/symbol to communicate --> acquire knowledge interpersonally
Syntax: logical, operational, confirmable by experience of others
Personification: reflects our need in satisfying needs & guarding security
Good me / bad me
May be fantasized (ex. Stereotypes, ideal mate)
Images, interpretation of self/others occupy our minds
Discharge of tension of the day b/c self is less watchful in dreams
Dreams are for maintaining sleep, the people in dreams are fantasized, projections of
impulses
Cognitive Processing
Influenced & is influenced by his work with schizophrenic patients
Not all communication is verbal/consensual
Hallmark of schizophrenia (parataxic thinking: taught to only use it occasionally -->
"translate" private meaning to something people can understand
Syntax is basic for social communication, but sometimes we speak
opaquely/idiosyncratically
Empathy: mother convey comfort/security or tension/anxiety
Before communication comes, there's development of emotions
Communication
Instead of stages, there are epoch/era (continues after formative psychosexual stages,
depends on childrearing, which allows for cultural difference)
Birth, helpless, dependent
Satisfies hunger/thirst
Suckling: ability to notice object/movement of importance
Mother's nipple = meaningful symbol (protoconcept) --> associated to comfort and
anxiety
Peak at 6-26 m/o
Responsiveness of mother to infants' needs (attachment)
Communicate via empathy (apprehension of mother's state)
Developing understanding of self as good/bad
Appearance of self-dynamism (organize self perception, cope with
disapproval/anxiety)
Shifts from prototaxic to parataxic
Also thumb sucking (to reduce tension) & crying & baby talk
Oral dynamism: channeling energy into action of drinking milk from mother
Infancy
Exposure to culture (toilet training, politeness, control emotion)
Shift from being cared for to being socialized
Childhood
Personality development
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