Textbook Notes (384,386)
CA (170,040)
SFU (5,746)
PSYC (972)
PSYC 370 (60)
Robert Ley (46)
Chapter

Personality Ch7. Three Eminent Neo Freudians Sullivan, Horney.pdf

8 Pages
191 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 370
Professor
Robert Ley

This preview shows pages 1-3. Sign up to view the full 8 pages of the document.
Rejected Freud's view on infantile sexuality --> focus on social interactions as core in developing
personality
Introduction
From Catholic, Irish-American family; grew up in Protestant community (isolating experience)
Only surviving child of unskilled workman (father); siblings died in infancy
@ 3y/o, father took over grandmother's farm (dirt poor)
Mother complained to Sullivan about her unhappiness (saw mother as "semi-invalid with
chronic resentment for the humble family")
Father was withdrawn, morbidly distant; mother may have had depressive symptoms --> son took
on role of caring for grandmother
Had one friend who was 5 years older
Spent lots of time with the livestock at the farm
Very lonely as a child (protestant community, farm is far away from things)
Loner in school, worked hard to get approval/recognition of teachers
A schizophrenic episode may have ensued (hospitalized)
Won scholarship to Cornell but suspended when he was caught mail-ordering illegal 'chemicals' -->
humiliating and never went back
Got a M.D. @ 25 y/o
Went to Chicago College of Medicine (forgiving of students' deficits & it was affordable)
Claimed to have studied psychoanalysis (but no evidence)
Worked a lieutenant (stories around this time also seem shaky)
But White felt Sullivan had no future as psychologist
At Washington, he, through William Alanson White, met distinguished social scientists, esp.
Edward Sapir
Treated patients as respected people, rejecting view of "crazy people"
Therapist as "participant observer" (expert, warm, not authoritarian)
Moved to Maryland. Practically self-taught from experience, observation, readings --> established
a ward for schizophrenic males & radical therapeutic regimen
Gave rise for Interpersonal theory of psychiatry
Was interested in study of race relations in the South
Acted as a consultant at the White House during WWI
His sudden death (brain hemorrhage) had devastating emotional impact on his friends and
colleagues
Anxious, lonely, witty, eccentric, warm, aloof
Harry Stack Sullivan: Personal History
Strongly influenced by Adolph Meyer (psychobiology parallel to Freud)
Self dynamism (theory of self as reflected appraisals of others)
In Sullivan's work, lots of influenced from sociology (Mead, Thomas, Cooley, Sapir)
Esp. in attempt treat schizophrenic patients: b/c they're withdrawn, they don't form
transference relationship, ergo, they are hard to study
American Psychiatry and Sociology
It is only through social interaction that we find individual personality
Can't study it in an individual, but in course of interaction with others
Interpersonal view of personality
Sullivan: Emphasis
Ch7. Three Eminent Neo Freudians: Sullivan, Horney
March-03-13
9:00 PM
P370 Textbook Page 1
Others don't have to be readily present, can be remembered or fantasized
This includes hallucinations in schizophrenic patients
Can't study it in an individual, but in course of interaction with others
Freud believed it was mainly transference
Changes the view of clinician-patient relationship
The assumption of a casual connection between events that are not rationally
examined/confirmed
e.g., when mother holds P she is tense --> P thinks self is a bad child
Parataxic thinking: a cognitive mode in early childhood
When P attaches to analyst based on erroneous identification of analyst with
significant others in experience
e.g., therapist is person of authority, just like my father --> I HATE YOU b/c you'll
probably try to tell me what to do & put me in my place
Not just projection, b/c therapist influences what P does
--> P realize they're not like that --> understanding
Parataxic distortion: a more extreme form of parataxic thinking, in adulthood
Parataxic Thinking and Distortion
Develops in early childhood, out of interaction with parents
And organizes interpersonal behaviours towards this goal
Self dynamism: pursuit of security (attain comfort/relief from rejection of others)
The self
One is security
e.g., lust
The other is satisfaction (bodily needs)
Success in striving for security determines how we feel about ourselves
Needs
Like Freud, tension reduction is a drive (but not the sexual parts)
Vs. absolute terror (threat to body/security) --> anxiety (like in schizophrenia)
Goal is euphoria: tensionless bliss, like a dreamless sleep
Accompanied by mental state of satisfaction when need is met
High tension when bodily needs have to be met (oxygen, warmth, sleep, sex)
Ex. Mother is tense when infant cries --> conveys disapproval --> "I'm a bad
infant/person"
Anxiety: fear of disapproval
Self system: developed to reduce anxiety, regain security
Tension
Basic unit of personality
The process of energy transformation (of physical energy into feelings, thoughts,
behaviours)
Recurrent, not static (changeable), transformation of energy into particular aspects of
behaviour
Emerge in interpersonal relations (vs. instinct)
Protects P from threats to security (develop when first aware of dis/approval)
Direct attention away from perceptions/senses that threaten security
Ex. Hear people say mean things, but don't attend to the meaning of it
Deal with anxiety by (1) selective attention
Deny anxiety laden experiences --> may be expressed in dreams
Deal with anxiety by (2) dissociation
Deal with anxiety by (3) regression
Sub
-
dynamism: hate, paranoid (rooted in inferiority & transfer of blame), oral, genial lust
Dynamisms
Sullivan: Major concepts of the interpersonal theory of psychiatry
P370 Textbook Page 2
Sub
-
dynamism: hate, paranoid (rooted in inferiority & transfer of blame), oral, genial lust
Raw, moment to moment, noticing stimuli
Not yet able to distinguish me-other
Sometime occur in profoundly disturbed schizophrenic
Prototaxic: kind of undifferentiated stream of conscious
Primitive language --> distinguish self-others
As if association between events is done without cognition
e.g., reacting in fear/distrust of people of different skin colour
e.g., superstition; those prone to anxiety
Very autistic/personal in nature
Parataxic: the first cry as signal/communication
Use words/symbol to communicate --> acquire knowledge interpersonally
Syntax: logical, operational, confirmable by experience of others
Personification: reflects our need in satisfying needs & guarding security
Good me / bad me
May be fantasized (ex. Stereotypes, ideal mate)
Images, interpretation of self/others occupy our minds
Discharge of tension of the day b/c self is less watchful in dreams
Dreams are for maintaining sleep, the people in dreams are fantasized, projections of
impulses
Cognitive Processing
Influenced & is influenced by his work with schizophrenic patients
Not all communication is verbal/consensual
Hallmark of schizophrenia (parataxic thinking: taught to only use it occasionally -->
"translate" private meaning to something people can understand
Syntax is basic for social communication, but sometimes we speak
opaquely/idiosyncratically
Empathy: mother convey comfort/security or tension/anxiety
Before communication comes, there's development of emotions
Communication
Instead of stages, there are epoch/era (continues after formative psychosexual stages,
depends on childrearing, which allows for cultural difference)
Birth, helpless, dependent
Satisfies hunger/thirst
Suckling: ability to notice object/movement of importance
Mother's nipple = meaningful symbol (protoconcept) --> associated to comfort and
anxiety
Peak at 6-26 m/o
Responsiveness of mother to infants' needs (attachment)
Communicate via empathy (apprehension of mother's state)
Developing understanding of self as good/bad
Appearance of self-dynamism (organize self perception, cope with
disapproval/anxiety)
Shifts from prototaxic to parataxic
Also thumb sucking (to reduce tension) & crying & baby talk
Oral dynamism: channeling energy into action of drinking milk from mother
Infancy
Exposure to culture (toilet training, politeness, control emotion)
Shift from being cared for to being socialized
Childhood
Personality development
P370 Textbook Page 3

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
Ch7. Three Eminent Neo Freudians: Sullivan, Horney March-03-13 9:00 PM Introduction • Rejected Freud's viewon infantilesexuality--> focus on social interactions as core in developing personality Harry Stack Sullivan:Personal History • From Catholic, Irish-Americanfamily;grewup in Protestant community (isolatingexperience) • Only survivingchild of unskilledworkman(father); siblingsdiedin infancy • @ 3y/o, father took over grandmother's farm (dirt poor) • Father was withdrawn, morbidlydistant; mother may have had depressivesymptoms --> son took on roleof caring for grandmother ○ Mother complainedto Sullivanabout her unhappiness (saw mother as "semi-invalidwith chronic resentment for the humble family") • Very lonelyas a child (protestant community, farm is far away from things) ○ Had one friend who was 5 years older ○ Spent lots of timewith the livestockat the farm • Loner in school, worked hard to get approval/recognitionof teachers • Won scholarship to Cornell but suspended when he was caught mail-ordering illegal'chemicals' --> humiliatingand neverwent back ○ A schizophrenic episode may have ensued (hospitalized) • Went to Chicago Collegeof Medicine (forgiving of students' deficits & it was affordable) ○ Got a M.D. @ 25 y/o • Claimedto have studied psychoanalysis (but no evidence) • Worked a lieutenant (stories around this time also seem shaky) • At Washington, he, through WilliamAlansonWhite, met distinguishedsocial scientists, esp. Edward Sapir ○ But White felt Sullivanhad no future as psychologist • Moved to Maryland. Practicallyself-taught from experience, observation, readings--> established a ward for schizophrenic males & radical therapeutic regimen ○ Treated patients as respected people, rejecting viewof "crazy people" ○ Therapist as "participant observer" (expert, warm, not authoritarian) • Gave risefor Interpersonal theory of psychiatry • Was interested in study of race relationsin the South • Acted as a consultant at the WhiteHouse during WWI • Hissudden death (brain hemorrhage) had devastating emotional impact on his friends and colleagues • Anxious, lonely, witty, eccentric, warm, aloof Sullivan:Emphasis • AmericanPsychiatry and Sociology ○ Strongly influenced by Adolph Meyer(psychobiology parallel to Freud) ○ In Sullivan'swork, lots of influenced from sociology (Mead, Thomas, Cooley, Sapir)  Self dynamism (theory of selfas reflected appraisals of others) ○ Esp. in attempt treat schizophrenic patients: b/c they're withdrawn, they don't form transference relationship, ergo, they are hard to study • Interpersonal viewof personality ○ It is only through social interaction that we find individualpersonality Can't study it in an individual,but in course of interaction with others ○ Can't study it in an individual,but in course of interaction with others  Others don't have to be readilypresent, can be rememberedor fantasized  This includes hallucinationsin schizophrenic patients • Parataxic Thinking and Distortion ○ Changesthe viewof clinician-patient relationship  Freud believedit was mainlytransference ○ Parataxic thinking: a cognitive mode in earlychildhood  The assumption of a casual connection between events that are not rationally examined/confirmed  e.g.,when mother holds P she is tense --> P thinks selfis a bad child ○ Parataxic distortion: a moreextreme form of parataxic thinking, in adulthood  When P attaches to analyst based on erroneous identification of analyst with significantothers in experience  e.g.,therapist is person of authority, just likemy father --> I HATE YOU b/c you'll probably try to tell me what to do & put me in my place  Not just projection, b/c therapist influences what P does  --> P realizethey're not likethat --> understanding • The self ○ Develops in earlychildhood, out of interaction with parents ○ Self dynamism: pursuit of security (attain comfort/relieffrom rejection of others)  And organizesinterpersonal behaviours towards this goal • Needs ○ One issecurity ○ The other is satisfaction (bodily needs)  e.g.,lust ○ Success in striving for security determineshow we feel about ourselves Sullivan:Major concepts of the interpersonal theory of psychiatry • Tension ○ Like Freud, tension reduction isa drive(but not the sexual parts) ○ Goal is euphoria: tensionlessbliss, likea dreamlesssleep  Vs. absolute terror (threat to body/security) --> anxiety (likein schizophrenia) ○ Hightension when bodily needs have to be met (oxygen, warmth, sleep, sex)  Accompanied by mental state of satisfaction when need is met ○ Anxiety:fear of disapproval  Ex. Mother is tense when infant cries --> conveys disapproval --> "I'm a bad infant/person" ○ Self system: developedto reduce anxiety, regainsecurity • Dynamisms ○ The process of energytransformation (of physical energyinto feelings,thoughts, behaviours)  Basic unit of personality ○ Recurrent, not static (changeable), transformation of energyinto particular aspects of behaviour ○ Emerge ininterpersonal relations (vs. instinct) ○ Protects P from threats to security (developwhen first awareof dis/approval) ○ Deal with anxiety by (1) selectiveattention  Direct attention awayfrom perceptions/senses that threaten security  Ex. Hear people say meanthings, but don't attend to the meaning of it ○ Deal with anxiety by (2) dissociation  Deny anxiety laden experiences--> may be expressed in dreams ○ Deal with anxiety by (3) regression Sub-dynamism:hate, paranoid (rooted in inferiority& transfer of blame), oral, genial lust ○ Sub-dynamism:hate, paranoid (rooted in inferiority& transfer of blame), oral, genial lust • CognitiveProcessing ○ Prototaxic: kind of undifferentiated stream of conscious  Raw, moment to moment, noticing stimuli  Not yet ableto distinguishme-other  Sometimeoccur in profoundly disturbed schizophrenic ○ Parataxic: the first cry as signal/communication  Primitivelanguage--> distinguishself-others  As if association between events is done without cognition  e.g.,reacting in fear/distrust of people of different skin colour  e.g.,superstition; those prone to anxiety  Very autistic/personal innature ○ Syntax: logical,operational, confirmable by experience of others  Usewords/symbol to communicate --> acquire knowledgeinterpersonally ○ Images,interpretation of self/others occupy our minds  Personification: reflects our need in satisfyingneeds & guarding security  Good me/ bad me  May be fantasized (ex. Stereotypes, ideal mate) ○ Dreams are for maintaining sleep, the peoplein dreams are fantasized, projections of impulses  Discharge of tension of the day b/c self is lesswatchful in dreams • Communication ○ Influenced & is influenced by his work with schizophrenic patients ○ Not all communication is verbal/consensual ○ Syntax is basic for social communication, but sometimeswe speak opaquely/idiosyncratically  Hallmarkof schizophrenia (parataxic thinking: taught to only use it occasionally--> "translate" private meaning to something people can understand ○ Before communication comes, there's development of emotions  Empathy: mother convey comfort/security or tension/anxiety • Personalitydevelopment ○ Instead of stages, there are epoch/era (continues after formativepsychosexual stages, depends on childrearing,which allowsfor cultural difference) ○ Infancy  Birth, helpless,dependent  Suckling: abilityto notice object/movement of importance □ Satisfieshunger/thirst  Mother's nipple= meaningfulsymbol (protoconcept) --> associated to comfort and anxiety  Communicatevia empathy (apprehension of mother's state) □ Peak at 6-26 m/o □ Responsivenessof mother to infants' needs (attachment)  Shifts from prototaxic to parataxic □ Developing understanding of self as good/bad □ Appearance of self-dynamism(organizeself perception, cope with disapproval/anxiety)  Oral dynamism:channeling energyinto action of drinking milkfrom mother □ Alsothumb sucking (to reduce tension) & crying & baby talk ○ Childhood  Shift from being cared for to being socialized □ Exposure to culture (toilet training, politeness, control emotion) □ Exposure to culture (toilet training, politeness, control emotion)  Develop syntax thought (communicate thoughts) --> only supplants parataxic (it's still there)  Self dynamism:more organized, considers gender norms □ Dramatization: role play as adult, see people/rolessymbolically  May develop preoccupation (w/ disapproval)if parents are harsh/anxious  Learn to sublimate (replace/combinethoughts/behaviours that are anxiety-inducing with those that gainapproval) □ Clownaround when mad at teacher, disruptivebut make teacher laughalso □ Learn to manipulate parents/others in pursuit of security  Malevolenttransformation: when security is badly threatened, child may retreat from affectionate contact, think the liveamong hateful enemies ○ JuvenileEra  (milestone)compeers: abilityto cooperate with other children/peers  Self dynamism:selfis dependent person; compares selfto others; need to belong  Disciplineimpulses& separate fantasy-reality  More skilledat manipulatingothers (interpersonal skill)  Form stereotype (teacher's pet, crybaby) --> parataxic  Many adults are still in this phase (may pas through to the next phase but maintain juvenileselfdynamism) ○ Preadolescence  Gradual transition, awayfrom ego centrism towards full social state  Increase capacity to love □ Usuallythose similarto ourselves (splitgender in groups)  Intimacy/sharingpossible b/c of protected environment (school, family,better understanding of parent) ○ Early Adolescence  Onset of puberty & genital lust  Socializedto the cultural attitude/norm of sex □ If ridiculedgreatly, it'll threaten security and set back development ○ Late Adolescence  Lust dynamism:lust x intimacy  Decide on lifepath (further education? Job?)  May regress to j
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit