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Published on 13 Oct 2011
School
Simon Fraser University
Department
Sociology and Anthropology
Course
SA 150
Professor
SA 150 Ch. 5
Socialization: the lifelong social experience by which individuals develop their
human potential and learn patterns of their culture.
Personality: a person’s fairly consistent patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting
Darwin believed that ppl had a fixed, instinctive nature. Ex. Criminals are born
criminals
Behaviorism Theory:Specific behaviour patterns aren’t instinctive but learned from
society
Sigmund Freud:
Basic Human Needs
oBonding, called life instinct
oAggressive drive, called death instinct
Freud’s Model of Personality:
oId: human’s basic drive
oEgo: A person’s conscious efforts to balance innate, pleasure-seeking
drives with the demands of society
oSuperego: the operation of culture within the individual in the form of
internalized values and norms
Summary/criticism:
oChild is id personality but grows up. Well adjusted ppl have an ego
personality
oThe id and superego are forever in conflict
oPersonality is an ongoing battle between opposing forces of biology and
society
oCompeting demands of self and society are often compromised by
sublimation (sex drives are satisfied by marriage, aggression settled by
competitive sports)
Jean Piaget: (Cognitive Development)
Sensorimotor Stage: the level of human development at
which individuals experience the world only through sensory contact.
oRoughly first 2 years of life
oUse 5 senses
oUnable to use symbols
Preoperational Stage: the level of human development at
which individuals first use language and other symbols
oAge 2-6
oReality moves beyond senses; imagination gained
(appreciate fairy tales)
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oEgocentric view of world. Cannot comprehend that
a situation may be diff. for someone else. (water in the glass experiment)
Concrete Operational Stage: the level of
development at which individuals first perceive causal connections in their
surroundings
oages 7-11
oCan attach more than one symbol to an event or object. Ex. “Today is
Wednesday, and it is also my birthday”
oCan stand in another person’s shoes and imagine themselves as others see
them
Formal Operational Stage: the level of human development at which individuals
think abstractly and critically
o“I would like an exciting job”
oCan understand metaphors
Summary/criticism:
oHuman mind is active and creative
oCapacity to engage the world grows predictable as result of biological
maturation and social experience
oFlaws:
ppl of other societies may not progress in the same way
as many as 30% of ppl never reach the formal operational stage
Lawrence Kohlberg: (Moral Development)
Preconventional level: (adding to piaget’s sensorimotor stage)
oWhat’s right is what serves my needs
Conventional level: (corresponds to piaget’s formal operational stage)
oRight and wrong is what pleases parents and what is consistent w/ broader
cultural norms
oIndividuals try to assess intiention in addition to observing what others do
Postconventional level:
oCan move beyond norms and ponder more abstract ethical principles
oReflect on the meaning of liberty, freedom, or justice
oCan criticize their own society and argue against traditions and laws that
may not be right
Summary/criticism:
oLike Piaget’s model, moral development occurs in more or less definable
stages.
oFlaws:
model may not apply to other societies
many ppl don’t reach postconventional level
only boys were tested. He generalized boys to all of humanity
Carol Gilligan: Bringing In Gender:
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Document Summary

Socialization: the lifelong social experience by which individuals develop their human potential and learn patterns of their culture. Personality: a person"s fairly consistent patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting: darwin believed that ppl had a fixed, instinctive nature. Behaviorism theory:specific behaviour patterns aren"t instinctive but learned from society. Jean piaget: (cognitive development) which individuals experience the world only through sensory contact. Sensorimotor stage: the level of human development at o o o. Unable to use symbols which individuals first use language and other symbols. Preoperational stage: the level of human development at. Reality moves beyond senses; imagination gained o o (appreciate fairy tales) o. Cannot comprehend that a situation may be diff. for someone else. (water in the glass experiment) Concrete operational stage: the level of development at which individuals first perceive causal connections in their surroundings: ages 7-11, can attach more than one symbol to an event or object.