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PSYC 1030H (50)
Chapter 13

Chapter 13- Development.docx

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PSYC 1030H
Elizabeth Nisbet

Chapter 13 DevelopmentPrenatal DevelopmentThree stages of development1Germinal begins at fertilization when sperm unites with ovum eggEgg is called a zygote dividesPlacenta is link to mother provides nutrients screens some harmful substancesAbout two weeks long2Embryonic begins once implantation is completed two weeks after fertilizationLasts until eighth week after conceptionDuring fourth to eighth weeks testosterone secreted to make males3Fetal eight weeks after conceptionNow called a fetusLasts until birthHarmful Influences Teratogens1German measles rubellaEspecially early in pregnancy affects fetuss eyes ears and heartMost common consequence is deafnessCan be prevented with vaccination up to three months before pregnancy2X rays or other radiation and toxic substances like leadCauses fetal deformities and cognitive abnormalities throughout lifeLead and mercury cause attention problems and lower IQ scores3Sexually transmitted diseasesCauses mental retardation blindness and other physical disordersGenital herpes can affect fetus if outbreak in deliveryHIV can be transferred to fetus4Cigarette smokingIncreases likelihood of miscarriage premature birth abnormal fetal heartbeat underweight babyIncreased rate of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome SIDSHyperactivity learning difficulties asthma antisocial behaviour in childhood5Regular consumption of alcoholKills neurons throughout fetuss brain affecting mental abilities attention span and academic achievementHaving more than two drinks a day increases risk of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome FAS causing low birth weight smaller brain facial deformities lack of coordination and mental retardation6Drugs other than alcoholCan harm fetus whether they are illicit like cocaine and heroine or legal like antibiotics antihistamines acne medication diet pillsCocaine affects childrens cognitive and language abilities and more largely ability to manage impulses and frustrationInfant DevelopmentPhysical and Perceptual AbilitiesNewborns born with motor reflexes automatic behaviours necessary for survivaloSuck on anything suckable like nipple or fingeroTightly grasp a finger pressed on their palmsoRooting reflex turn their heads toward a touch on cheek or corner of mouth allows them to find breast or bottleoMany disappear but kneejerk eyeblink and sneeze reflexes remainAlso born with inborn perceptual abilitiesoCan see hear touch smell and tasteoNewborn visual focus range is 20 cm avg distance between baby and person holding them develops rapidlyoCan distinguish contrasts shadows edgesoCan discriminate mothercaregiver on smell sight and sound almost immediatelyCulture and MaturationMany aspects of development affection by cultural customs of how their parents hold touch feed and talk to themoCanada and western babies expected to sleep eight hours by fourfive months
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