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BIOL107 Chapter Notes -Chromatin, Nucleolus, Mitochondrion

by OneClass247811 , Fall 2013
3 Pages
Fall 2013

Biology (Biological Sciences)
Course Code
Lesley Harrington

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Chromosomes -Long circle dsDNA, 5000
bp long
-Contain information
E. Coli Strains -Pathogenic H57:O7
-Beneficial K12
-Lab Strains DH5a
4600 chromosomes, 4600
Plasmids -Small circles of dsDNA; 1-
100 copies
-Resistance (suppress
function of antibiotics)
-Fertility (DNA transfer)
-Having plasmids = better
in extreme cases, otherwise
reproduce slowly
Ribosomes 7000-70,000/ cell
Make new proteins
Having MORE ribosomes =
faster reproduction
234; 121//rRNA rProteins
Inclusion Bodies Stores nutrients in big
Helps cell move to where
nutrients are
Nucleus Takes up 6% volume
- Chromatin
- Pores
- Envelope
- Nucleolus (2 layers
+ inner fluid +
lamina + pores x
Makes RNA, assembles
Plasma Membrane Holds everything inside

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ENDOMEMBRANE SYSTEM IN PROK Chromosomes ­Long circle dsDNA, 5000  bp long ­Contain information E. Coli Strains ­Pathogenic H57:O7 4600 chromosomes, 4600  ­Beneficial K12 genes ­Lab Strains DH5a Plasmids ­Small circles of dsDNA; 1­ 100 copies ­Resistance (suppress  function of antibiotics) ­Fertility (DNA transfer) ­Having plasmids = better  in extreme cases, otherwise  reproduce slowly Ribosomes 7000­70,000/ cell 234; 121//rRNA rProteins Make new proteins Having MORE ribosomes =  faster reproduction 70S RIBOSOME Inclusion Bodies Stores nutrients in big  clumps Helps cell move to where  nutrients are IN EUK Nucleus Takes up 6% volume Has: ­ Chromatin ­ Pores ­ Envelope ­ Nucleolus (2 layers  + inner fluid +  lamina + pores x  3000) Makes RNA, assembles  ribosomes Plasma Membrane Holds everything inside ER Makes up 50­90% of  membrane  Lumen  ▯15% volume Rough ER Process membrane + export  proteins Make membrane lipids  (phospholipids) Smooth ER Metabolize drugs in liver  cells by adding OH Store calcium in muscles  ▯ rise in Ca++ = contraction;  gated and passive channel Lysosome Hydrolytic enzymes Interior is very acidic Vacuoles Usually contain food via  phagocytosis;  Contractile  ▯Expel water 
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