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Biology (Biological Sciences)
Lesley Harrington

Chromosome: containers of genetic information; a complex made of DNA+ proteins Core histones: protein molecules that act as spools around which DNAis coiled twice Nucleosome: bead on a string structure along with DNAis wound Histone H1: compacts DNAstrand and its nucleosome 30nm fiber: resulting shape of DNA scaffold proteins: wind 30 nm DNAinto coils chromatin: material that makes up chromsomes; euchromatin: loosely packed, contain many genes to be transcribed heterochromatin: densely packed, high-repetitive sequences satellite DNA: short, highly-repetitive sequences centromere: heterochromtic proteins that appear as chromosomal constrictions metacentric: middle acrocentric: on one end telocentric: nea the edges; highly repetitive sequences holocentric: no single centromere is central telomere: repetitive sequences that offer protections and from cell getting too small homologous chromosomes: similar but non-identical chromosomes non-°©‐homologous  different gene loci, may or may not be same alleles sister chromatids  same genetic material non-°©‐sister chromatids  two separate homologous chromosomes; contain same genes in the same order, not necessaeily identical DNAsequences DNApolymerase  builds DNAvia replication Telomerase  telomere DNA, RNA-directed DNApoly Mitosis  asexual cell division Prophase --. condense Metaphase  chromo in the middle Anaphase  chromosomes move to opposite poles Telophase  daughter cell makes identical sets Cytokinesis --. Cytoplasmic cell division Meiosis  sexual reproduction Syanaptonemal  proteins bind homologous chromosomes together along their length complex bivalent --. TWO PIECES TOGETHER crossovers reductional division  dividing the number of chromosomes from 2n to 1n equational division  number of chromosomes per cell is unchanged, G 1phase  gap 1, normal single chromosome growth phase G 2phase  before mitosis, not found in meiosis cells S phase  chromosome replication M phase  mitosis/ meiosis phase G 0 --. Permanent, non-dividing stage called Go phase Interphase  all parts of cell cycle excluding cell meiosis/ mitosis C  dna content of cell N  represents number of chromosomes Haploid --. 1n are haploid, gametes (1n) replicated chromosome  sister chromatids are duplicated but are still counte
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