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NUTR100 (67)
Chapter 1

Jan 7 - Chap 1 Nutrition.doc

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Sabina Valentine

Jan 7 – Nutrition: Chap 1 – The Role of Nutrition in Our Health What Is Nutrition? Nutrition: the study of food, including • How food nourishes our bodies • How food influences our health • Nutrition is a relatively new discipline of science Why is Nutrition Important? Nutrition contributes to wellness Wellness: the absence of disease (physical, emotional and spiritual health) Critical components of wellness: nutrition and physical activity Nutrition can prevent disease a.) Diseases caused by nutrient deficiency: scurvy, goiter and rickets b.) Diseases influenced by nutrition: chronic diseases such as heart disease c.) Diseases in which nutrition plays a role: osteoarthritis, osteoporosis Obesity is a growing problem in Canada What Are Nutrients? • Nutrients: the chemicals in foods that are critical to human growth and function • There are 6 classes of nutrients: carbs, fats and oils, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water Macronutrients • Macronutrients are nutrients required in relatively large amounts • Macronutrients provide energy to our bodies • Macronutrients are carbohydrates, fats and oils, and proteins Micronutrients • Nutrients required in smaller amounts • Some micronutrients include vitamins and minerals Energy From Nutrients We measure energy in kilocalories (kcal) • Kilocalorie: amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1g of water by 1 degree Celsius • On food labels, “Calorie” actually refers to kilocalories Carbohydrates • Carbs are a primary source of fuel for the body, especially for the brain • Carbs provide 4 kcal/g • Carbs are found in grains (wheat, rice), veggies, fruits, milk, and legumes Fats and Oils • Fats and oils are composed of lipids, molecules that are insoluble in water • Fats provide 9 kcal/g • Fats are an important energy source during rest or low intensity exercise • Fats are found in butter, margarine and veggie oils Proteins • Proteins are chains of amino acids • Proteins can supply 4 kcal/g but aren’t a primary energy source • Proteins are an important source of nitrogen Proteins are important for: • Building cells and tissues • Maintaining bones • Repairing damage • Regulating metabolism Protein sources include meats, dairy products, seeds, nuts, and legumes Vitamins • Vitamins: organic molecules that assist in regulating body processes • Vitamins are micronutrients that don’t supply energy to our bodies 1.) Fat-soluble vitamins 2.) Water-soluble vitamins Fat- Soluble Vitamins • The fat soluble vitamins are vitamins A,D, E, and K • Fat soluble vitamins dissolve easily in fats and oils • Fat soluble vitamins can be stored in the body • Deficiencies in fat soluble vitamins can be serious • Found in fat-containing foods such as meats, dairy, veggie oils, nuts, seeds, fatty fish Water Soluble Vitamins • Water soluble vitamins are vitamin C and the B vitamins • Water soluble vitamins remain dissolved in water • Excess water soluble vitamins are eliminated by the kidneys • Water soluble vitamins aren’t stored in our bodies • Water soluble vitamins are abundant in many foods but sensitive to cooking and storage practices Minerals • Minerals are inorganic substances required for body processes • Include sodium, calcium, iron, potassium, and magnesium • Many different functions such as fluid regulation, bone structure, muscle movement, and nerve functioning • Our bodies require at least 100 mg per day of the major minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride • We require less than 100 mg per day of the trace minerals such as iron, zinc, copper, iodine, and fluoride Water • Water is a critical nutrient for health and survival • Water is involved in many body processes: fluid balance, nerve impulses, muscle contractions, nutrient transport, removal of wastes, chemical reactions etc. Determining Nutrient Needs • Dietary reference intakes (DRIs) are updated nutritional standards for Canada and US • Expand on the traditional recommended values of each country • Set standards for nutrients that didn't previously have recommended values Determining Nutrient Needs DRIs consist of 4 values: 1.) Estimate
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