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PSYCO105 (33)
Chapter 14

Psych 105 Chapter 14 Textbook Notes.docx

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University of Alberta
Blaine Mullins

Chapter 14: Psychological Disorders (Textbook Notes) Symptoms – behaviours, thoughts, and emotions suggestive of an underlying abnormal syndrome – a coherent cluster of symptoms usually due to a single cause. DSM = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – a classification system Homosexuality dropped from the list of psychological disorders in 1974 Categories of Mental Disorders: 1. Disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or early adolescence. Eg. Bed-wetting 2. Delirium, dementia, amnesic, and other cognitive disorders. 3. Mental disorders due to a general medical condition not elsewhere classified. Eg. Deterioration of the brain from prolonged drug abuse. 4. Substance-related disorders 5. Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders 6. Mood disorders 7. Anxiety disorders 8. Somatoform disorders – preoccupation with physical health with no cause. Eg. Hypochondriac 9. Factitious disorders – adopted to satisfy some psychological need 10. Dissociative disorders 11. Sexual and gender identity disorders 12. Eating disorders. Eg. Furious Pete 13. Sleep disorders 14. Impulse control disorder not elsewhere classified. Eg. Pathological gambling 15. Adjustment disorders 16. Personality disorders 17. Other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention Comorbidity is relatively common in patients within the DSM diagnostic system. Table 14.2 GAF Scale – I don’t think we will have to know this... Etiology – a specific pattern of causes. Prognosis – a typical course over time and susceptibility to treatment and cure. The complexity of causation suggests that different individuals can experience a similar psychological disorder (e.g., depression) for different reasons. Diathesis = internal predisposition and Stress = external trigger. Intervention-causation fallacy – Assumption that if a treatment is effective, it must address the cause of the problem. 70% of people with diagnosable psychological disorders do not seek treatment. Important to avoid labelling: eg. a person with schizophrenia vs. a schizophrenic. Significant comorbidity between anxiety and depression. GAD occurs more frequently in lower socioeconomic groups than in middle and upper class. Compared with fraternal twins, identical twins have moderately higher concordance rates (% of pairs that share the characteristic) for GAD Benzodiazepines (Valium, librium) stimulate neurotransmitter GABA and can sometimes reduce symptoms of GAD. 5 categories of specific phobia: I) animals II) natural environments III) situations IV) blood, injections, and death V) other phobias, including illness and death Specific phobias are much more common in women than men (4:1 ratio) and have a genetic component. Preparedness theory - people are instinctively predisposed towards certain fears. Panic disorder especially prevalent among women. People with panic disorder were found to be more sensitive to sodium lactate Most common obsessions: contami
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