Analyzing stimulus response chains:
Each behavior chain consists of a number of individual stimulus response components that occur
together in a sequence. For this reason, a behavioral chain is called stimulusresponse chain. Each
behavior produces a response that acts as the SD for the next response in the chain. Therefore the
next response in the chain depends on the occurrence of the previous chain. SD1▯R1 ▯ this R1 become
the SD2 for▯R2 and so on. Often if you have an establishing operation so the outcome of the chain
will become more reinforcing.
The process of analyzing a behavioral chain by breaking it down into its individual stimulus response
components there are different ways you can do this. Observe a competent person engage in the task.
Ask an expert ( who can perform this task) or just perform the behavior yourself to record each of the
component responses (might be the best choice) ▯ once this is develop you may have to revise it
depending on your client. You may have to break a single component even more (such as a person
with severe disabilities) and you can bring together bunch of the steps if the person can easily do it.
Once this process is done, now you use chaining procedure, which involves the systematic
application of prompting and fading strategies, each stimulus and response component in the chain.
Backward chaining: is an intensive training procedure typically used with learners with limited
abilities. You usually use prompting and fading to teach the last behavior in the chain first then the
second last and so on all while using prompting to encourage behavior and once that person can do it
then using fading to hand over stimuli control to SD. Because you praise a lot, the response you
produce becomes the conditional reinforce for the behavior done.
Forwards: usually use prompting and fading to teach the FIRST behavior in the chain first then the
second after the first is master all while using prompting to encourage behavior and once that person
can do it then using fading to hand over stimuli control to SD. Because you praise a lot, the response
you produce becomes the conditional reinforce for the behavior done. Again the outcomes of each of
the response (the SD for the next response) become a conditional response because you reinforced
(praise) so much.
Similarities btw forward and backward: both used to teach a chain for behavior. 2) both use task
analysis that break down the chain into components 3) teach one behavior at a time and then chain
the behavior together 4) prompting and fading used by both of them.
Differences btw forward and backward: forwards start the first component first while the backup
starts with the last component first. 2) Backward chaining ▯ person continues to receive a natural
reinforce (i.e. food when done since he always finishes the last step) but in the forward artificial
reinforces are used since you don’t finish the whole step until the very end.
Total task presentations(TP): the complex chain of behaviors is taught as a single unit. The learner
is engaged in the entire behavior and you still use the