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Chapter 9

Shaping chapter 9.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCO282
Professor
Karsten Loepelmann
Semester
Fall

Description
Defining shaping Shaping: is used to develop a target behavior that the person does not currently have. It  is defined as the  differential reinforcement  of successive approximation of a target  behavior until the person exhibits the target behavior. This process involves the basic  principals of reinforcement and extinction such as reinforcing only the behavior that lead  to the target behavior so it increases and not reinforcing other behavior so the are extinct. When shaping is used to develop language, the successive approximation or shaping  steps uses include babbling, word sounds, part words, whole words, string of words, and  sentences. The very first behavior produced is called the starting behavior or first  approximation and then we often use differential reinforcement to get to the target  behavior reinforcing only those that are closer to the actual behavior ( only the new step  that is closer to the target not the old one (successive approximation:  Application of shaping: The old woman named Mrs. F who didn’t want to go PT. But got massage if she did.  They went a lot. Then was asked to start 1s▯5s▯ etc to get massage ( yyour goal is   increasing like my stydying time). Eventually she was able to walk. Usually want to start  with the behavior that the person is already engaged in and then take it from there.  Generally involves these things: 1) Generation novel behavior 2) Reinstating a previously exhibited behavior ( i.e. walking but now can’t) 3) Changing some dimension of the behavior  (i.e. time btw washroom break) Research on shaping: Often involves using a very good instrument such as to measure even a decibel of noise  to reinforce it until a person can spread loudly. All are based on helping people to get  them a desire target behavior while using successive approximation. Many have now  used it for shaping and compliance with medical procedures ( which are time consuming  and boring ) How to use shaping:   Main goal: use shaping to develop a target behavior that the person is  not currently  exhibiting. The following step ensure the appropriate use of shaping: 1) Define the target behavio
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