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Chapter 1

PSYCO 104 Chapter 1: Science of Behaviour


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCO104
Professor
Geoff Hollis
Chapter
1

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psychology: scientific study behaviour and mind
behaviour: action and responses that we can directly observe
mind: internal states and process (thought and feeling)
psychology's goal: describe how people behave, explain and understand the cause of behaviour,
predict how people and animal will behave under certain conditions, influence or control behaviour through
knowledge
if understand the causes of behaviour, and know when the causal factors are present or absent, able to successfully predict when
behaviour occur
basic research: quest for knowledge purely for its own sake
applies research: designed to solve specific practical problems
3 levels of analysis: biological(genes, brain process), psychological(thought, emotions, motives), environmental(past and current
environment)
mind-body interactions: relations between mental process in the brain and the functioning of other bodily system
mind-body dualism: the belief that the mind is a spiritual entity not subject to physical laws that govern the body
monism: mind and body are one and the mind is not a separate spiritual entity
Thomas Hobbes, John Locke: ideas and knowledge are gained empirically(senses)
psychophysics: study of how psychologically experienced sensations depend on the characteristics of physical stimuli
Darwin’s theory: scientists might gain insight about human behaviour by studying other species

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structuralism: analysis of the mind in terms of its basic elements
functionalism: psychology should study the functions of consciousness rather than its structure
1)Psychodynamic perspective: cause of behaviour within the inner working of our personality, role of unconscious process (unique
pattern of motives)
free association: patient express any thoughts that come to mind
psychoanalysis-Freud: analysis of internal and primarily unconscious psychological forces, human have powerful inborn sexual and
aggressive drive(child)
2)Behavioural perspective: role of the external environment in governing our actions (behaviour determined by past experience)
John Locke: at birth the human mind is a blank table, human is shaped by the environment
Ivan Pavlov: how learning occurs when events are associated with each other
Edward Thorndike: how organisms learn through consequences of their actions
law of effect: responses followed by satisfying consequences more likely to recur
*learning is the key to understand how experience moulds behaviour
Behaviourism: environmental control of behaviour through learning british empiricism
John B Watson: psychology is observable behaviour, not unobservable inner consciousness
B.F. Skinner: how behaviour is influenced by the rewarding and punishing consequences that it produces. language is acquired
through basic principles
behaviour modification: decreasing problem behaviours and increasing positive behaviours by manipulating environmental factors
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