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Chapter 11

Sociology Chapter 11.doc

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Jana Grekul

Chapter 11: Stratification by Social Class Measuring social class Objective method: class viewed as statistical category based on occupation, income, etc. Prestige: respect and admiration that an occupation holds Esteem: reputation a specific person has earned within an occupation Gender and Occupational Prestige  Neglect occupations and incomes of women as determinants of social rank  Should be classified on their occupational status, rather than spouse Multiple measures  Use statistical method and computer technology Wealth and income  Canada much more evenly devided Poverty Low income cut off: poverty line in Canada Market basket measure: more than subsistence needs by calculating the amounts needed by various households to live a life comparable to the standards of its community Absolute poverty: Minimum level of subsistence below which no family should be expected to live Relative poverty: Standard of deprivation by which people at the bottom of society live Social Safety net: initiatives designed to alleviate the harshest conditions associated with being at the bottom of the income scale Underclass: blame the victims for their own plight, while ignoring other factors that push people into poverty Explaining poverty  Presence of poor people, dirty work at low cost  Poverty provides occupations that serve the poor  Identification and punishment of the poor as deviants upholds legitimacy of conventional social norms and mainstream values regarding hard work, thrift and honestly  Guarantees higher status of the more affluent  Poor absorb costs of social change, satisfy positive functions for non-poor groups Life chances  Opportunities to provide themselves and material goods, positive living conditions and favorable life experiences  In times of danger the powerful have better chance surviving than ordinary people Digital Distance: the poor cannot connect to the Internet Social mobility: the movement of individuals/ groups from on position in a society’s stratification system to another Open System: position of each individual is influenced by his or her achieve status Closed System: little or no possibility of individual social mobility Types of Social Mobility Horizontal mobility: move from one social position to another of the same rank Vertical mobility: movement of an individual from one social position to another of a different rank (can be downwards) Intergenerational Mobility: Change in the social position of kids relative to their parents Intragenerational Mobility: Change in social position with a poisons adult life Social Mobility in Canada  Occupational Mobility; both Inter/Intragenerational Mobility  Impact of Education  Impact of Gender Racial and Ethnic Inequality Racial Group: group set apart because of physical differences Ethnic Group: group set apart because of national origin on distinctive cultural patterns Minority Groups: subordinate group whose members have significantly less control or power over their own lives than other members of a dominant of majority group have over theirs 1. Experience unequal treatment 2. Members of minority share physical or cultural characteristics 3. Membership in a minority is not voluntary 4. Minority group members have a strong sense of group solidarity 5. Minority marry from same group Social construction of race  Culture can play a role in race  Race is a social construction Stereotypes: unreliable generalizations about all members of a group that do not recognize individual differences within a group Ethnicity  Subjectively assigned by one group to another, si
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