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Chapter 12

PSYC Chapter 12.pdf

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University of Calgary
PSYC 351

Chapter 12 Early Social And Emotional Development1020 of mothers suffer from postpartum depression Children of mothers with PPD can have growth developmental problems behavioural problemsSince recovering from depression takes a long time new approach tries to change how the mothers interact with their babiesThe Keys to Caregiving Programdeveloped by NCAST Nursing Child Assessment Satellite Training is used to model nurturing behaviour by parents Mothers are shown how best to respond to the nonverbal cues their infants give themMothers of 3 month old babies attended 5 weekly sessions of Keys to Caregivingshowed marked increase in their levels of interest and joy So these kinds of programs increase infants positive responsiveness and improves infant outcomes by helping the mother learn how she should interact with her babythe baby is the PRODUCER of his own environmentHuman social behaviour is TRANSACTIONAL each persons action both affect and are affected by the actions of others 1 Theories of Early Social DevelopmentSocial development during the first years of life is unique in several important ways o Social world consists of few individuals o These initial relationships influence the future and have longterm effects on childs social personality and cognitive developmento Children develop strong emotional relationships more easily and intensely during the infant yearsEvolutionary and Biological ApproachesSocial behaviours represent millions of years of gradual adaptation to the environmentJohn Bowlbys influenceNatural selection has provided infants and mothers innate system of behaviours designed to ensure the infants survivalThe infant promotes care giving behaviours by many ways making interactions very pleasant for the mother smiling vocalizing making eye contact reduce signs of distress when mother gives attention stops fussing when picked up cute women especially love baby like features as well grow up we like childrens features moreCaregiver has builtin mechanisms for doing what is necessary for the infants survivalThe individuals job is to read the infants signal and decide what is wrong what to do and when it has been effectiveethologists characterizes these complex sequences of innate behaviours as modal action patterns and assume that they are triggered by certain stimuli such as the sound or smell of newborn pups how much is biological most mothers have these stereotypical activities because they observe it in their culturethe behaviours that serve to keep mother and baby together during the early weeks and months of life emerge as part of an attachment process that also includes a strong emotional bondbaby emits careseeking behaviours to everyone mother responds in a sensitive and consistent waybaby comes closer to mother for comfort and reassurancebowlby thinks that this attachment occurs at a sensitive periodcontemporary evolutionary psychologists now suspect that the situation that bowlbys model was based on was highly unstable with unpredictable changes in climate and habitat Humans are flexible and adaptive in social conditionsNow theorists also think that adaptive or maladaptive depends on the situation children who get attached to depressed mothers are at a bad risk Environmental Learning ApproachesSocialization process by which a childs behaviour is moulded to fit with the societys roles beliefs and expectations begins in infancy continues throughout childhood affects childs complex social behaviours moral development interaction with peersSocial behaviours result from interactions between two individuals caregiverinfantinfants produce behaviours that encourage the mother to approach and remain close crypositive reinforcement milk or negative removal of wet diapermother learns to respond because it results in either negative reinforcement baby stops crying or positive reinforcement baby smilesinfant behaviours can be influenced by reinforcements infant vocalizations increase if reinforced and decreased if subjected to an extinction procedureseparation protest and social referencing can be produced through conditioninginfant behaviours can increase reinforce or decrease punish the social behaviourof the caregiver
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