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BIOL 1070
T.Ryan Gregory

Unit #1 Notes Unit #2 Notes - Hierarchical taxonomic systems: 1) Domain 2) Kingdom 3) Phylum 4) Class 5) Order 6) Family 7) Genus 8) Species - E.g. Humans: Eukarya > Animalia > Chordata > Mammalia > Primates > Hominidae > Homo > Sapiens - Diversity: the number of species in a taxonomic group or a geographical area; some taxonomic groups are very diverse while others are not - In Lake St. Clair there were huge areas where he found almost no mussels and others where he found five different species and many individuals - Invasive species: - Each species usually has morphological (physical) traits that can distinguish one species form another - At times the morphological traits of interest exist along a range of variation among conspecifics (members of the same species) - Sexual dimorphism: difference between male and female physical traits - Ontogeny changes are differences between immature and mature specimen, as development causes changes in morphology - Scientific names can reveal important information about the species; e.g. Zebra Mussels= Dreissena polymorpha: Polymorpha meaning many forms--> zebra mussel infestations have size, colour, stripe pattern and other differences - Intraspecific variation: variation that exists in morphological traits within species that can make it difficult to identify species of native mussels - Observed traits have a genetic basis such that it will be passed on in similar form to offspring - However some morphological variability is not due primarily to genetic differences, but to the environment - Phenotypic plasticity: cases in which the same set of genes (genotype) can result in differing features (phenotype) according to environmental conditions - Abundance: number of individuals; e.g. massive abundances of zebra mussels versus the very low abundance of endangered native mussels - Variation: both morphological and genetic variations in mussels - Diversity: diversity in number of species in different areas - Disparity: in size within the native mussel fauna Biological scale Examples Differences in diversity, abundance, and Bacteria vs. eukaryotes; distribution among major groups of life (Domains, Plants vs. animals; Kingdoms, Phyla, etc.) Arthropods vs. chordates Differences in diversity, abundance, and Amphibians vs. mammals; distribution within particular groups (Classes, Rodents vs. primates; Old Orders, Families, etc.) World monkeys vs. hominids Genetic and/or phenotypic differences among Human populations in Africa populations within a species. vs. in southeast Asia. Genetic and/or phenotypic differences among Your classmates vs. you. individual organisms within populations. - Phylogenetics: major topic in evolutionary biology; the ways in which living things are related to one another through their common ancestors - In a phylogeny, instead of people the ancestors and descendants are usually species - Cladistics: the approach to classification that is based strictly on evolutionary relationships - Clades: any group of species that includes the last ancestor that they shared and all its descendants - Valid clades, which include the last shared ancestor and all its descendants, are known as monophyletic groups - In evolutionary classification when one of the descendants is left out, this creates a paraphyletic group - Sharing traits is called homology, whereas having traits that are similar but evolved independently is called homoplasy Unit #3 Notes - Two major patterns as a result of evolution: - There is an enormous diversity of species occupying a wide range of very different habitats - Organisms are generally well-suited to life in their particular habitat - Genetic drift: changes due to chance, specifically founder effects and population bottlenecks - Gene flow: movement of genes among populations - Adaptations: - A characteristic that enhances the survival and/or reproduction of organisms that bear it, relative to alternative (especially ancestral) character states - A physical, physiological, behavioral, or other characteristic evolved through natural selection - NOT the change undergone by an individual organism during its lifetime in response to external conditions - Frequency: the proportional representation of a phenotype, genotype, gamete, or allele in a population (e.g. 6 out of 10 people have blue eyes; a frequency of 0.6) - Postulates o
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