Textbook Notes (369,067)
Canada (162,366)
Biology (311)
BIOL 2400 (32)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1 notes.docx

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Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 2400
Professor
Cortland Griswold

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Chapter 1: The Virus and the Whale  Biological evolution – any change in the inherited traits of a population to the next 1.1 Whales: Mammals Gone to Sea  Whales and dolphins are collectively known as cetaceans  Whales and fish lineages, evolving independently, converged on body forms that are superficially similar  Lineage – a chain of ancestors and their descendants, referring to a single population, an entire species, or species descending from a common ancestor  Convergent evolution – the independent origin of similar traits in separate lineages  Ambulocetus was a fossil whale that had legs. This animal had traits that were intermediate between modern whales and their terrestrial ancestors.  Homologous – characteristics that are similar in two or more species because they are inherited from a common ancestor  Synapomorphy – is a derived form of a trait that is shared by a group of related species  The chemistry of fossil whales documents a transition from land to estuaries to the open ocean – the same transition documented in the changing shape of their skeletons  Studying limb development in dolphins has revealed some of the mechanisms responsible for the evolutionary loss of hindlimbs  Natural selection – is a mechanism that can lead to evolution, whereby differential survival or reproduction of individuals causes some genetic types to replace/outcompete others  Phylogeny – a visual representation of the evolutionary history of populations, genes, or species  The fact that whales started the process of hindlimb development is evidence for their evolution from terrestrial mammalian ancestors 1.2 Viruses: The Deadly Escape Artists  Hemagglutinin is a protein on the surface of the influenza virus that latches it to a host cell; it is also the protein that is recognized by our im
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