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Biomedical Sciences
BIOM 3200
Tami Martino

UNIT 3Nervous SystemCentral Nervous system Brain and spinal cordPeripheral nervous system Cranial nerves that arise from the brain Spinal nerves that arise from the spinal cord Connects to the whole bodyCentral Nervous system Brain composed of neurons and support cells Sensory peripheral nerves Response Motor neurons response or brain emotions memory learning and perceptions Axonial Nerve fibres Connect the brain with the spinal cord Ascending tract Sensory info from Peripheral to brain Descending tract Motor nerve impulse to the spinal cordBrain DevelopmentFrom the embryonic ectodermal neural tubeRostral to Caudal swelling of neural tube Telencephalon diecephalon mesencephalon metancephalon and myelencephalonVenticles Cerebral Spinal Fluid filled chambers CSF made by choroid plexuses Specialized tissue Lateral ventricles are deep in the cerebral hemispheres and midline to third ventricle at the level of diecephalonMidbrain ventricle narrows into the Aqueduct Fouth ventricle communication level of pons cerebellum and medulla CSF escapes by Foramen into the subarachnoid spaceMeninges Encase the brain and spinal cord by 3 layerso Dura mater tough connective tissueo Arachnoid mater Delicate membraneo Pia mater Delicate membrane associated with the surface of the brain Subarachnoid space between arachnoid and pia with CSFo Buoyant layer that protects the brain Arachnoid villi drain the CSF into the venous circulationCerebrum Large mushroom shaped wrinkled structure found cranially and partially covering the rest of the brain Sulci Grooves Gyri Elevated folds Surface is grey matter with cell bodies White matter myelinated axons that connect the grey matter to areas of the brain Longitudinal Fissure Deep groove divided into anatomically left and right hemisphere Divided into sections based on the underlying bones Central sulcus Divides into anterior and posterior parts Marks the division of the frontal lobe Lateral sulcus is a large groove on each side of the brain and delineates the temporal lobe from the frontal and parietal lobes Precentral gyrus part of the frontal lobe adjacent to the central sulcus Involved in voluntary muscle movements Postcentral gyrus is involved in somatic sensation Temporal lobe contains neurons for senses Occipital lobe is for the visual stimuliBasal Nuclei Collections of cell bodies in white matter of the cerebrum needed for proper body movements Upper moto neurons of the precentral motor cortex send
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