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Chapter 6

CLAS 2000 Chapter 6: Chapter 6
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Department
Classical Studies
Course
CLAS 2000
Professor
John Walsh
Semester
Fall

Description
Nature of the Gods and Greek Religion Denied to the God is the power to undo the past : ARISTOTLE Anthropomorphism  Greek and Roman gods depicted as human in form and carhacters, act like human,s their appearance nad actions = exntei dealized o Bueatiy beyond ordinary, passions more grand, sentiments more praiseworthy nad touching, embody and impose the loftiest moral values o Yet mirror human physical, spiritual waeknessness, ▪ Lame, vain, petty, insincere, steal,lie, cheat  Gods live in Mt. Olympus or in heaven; o Difference of the Gods in the upper air and upperworld (Olympians) and those in the realm below named chtonian of the earth o Food is ambrosia, and win nector o Ichor is the substance cleare than blood flows in their vein  They can suffer physical pain  Worshipped in temples, shrines, sanctuaries, and honored with statues, scarifices and invoked prayers  GOD more versatile than mortal, o Move fast, dexterity, appear, disappear, various forms, human, animal, and divine  Gods are not omnipotent; exept Zeus, but even Zeus subject to Fate or Fates  Omnisecne = Zeus, except Apollo who communicate knowledge of the future to mortal o Gods = importality; dinvince characteriathanatos (immortal).  Zeus = EAGLE  HERA = PEACOCK  Posidon = HORSE  ATHENA = OWL  APRHODITE: DOVE, SPARROW or GOOSE  Ares: BOAR;  Greek in early period didn’t worship animals as scared Divine Heirachy  Gorgon and Harpies rep differnet category of Supernatural world, diffenret ord, dincine spiritis who animate nature  Nymphs; beautiful young girls who love to dance and singe, extremely amorous o Act like attendants, for one or more major gods  Muses are a kind of NYMPHS oso ar Nereids and Oceanids; some them assume virtualy stature of deity o Nymphs = fairely long lived but not immortal  Demi God: superhuman beings, superior kind of being, supermen and superwomen, o Offspring of mixed parentage; god with mortal, o Limited in powers, less than full flighed, they are moral, o Oftehn little more than figure made large than life because tragic and epic environment  Heroes = demigods; o Oedipus dn Amphiarus are not demigods, but far from orindary o = heroes, certain after death, honored with cultu because if the spiritual inteistyo fhtier lives, miraculous nature of their deaths; ▪ Associated with chthonic powers of exert, exert these powers to bless or CURSE BEYOND THE GRAVE  Heracles is a hero and demigod; o He joins the company of immortals on Olympus as reward for his glorious attainsments in the worl  Achilles is demigod, son of mortal Peleus and Nymph goddess Thetis; o Powers extordinary; but judged as hero as epic hero of the ILLIAD  Hierarchy o Olympian; major dieteties of the lower world; powerful aristocracy; o Idnividaul gods honoured in particular places o Athena in Athena o Hera in Argos o Hephaeuts in Lemnos o Apollo in Delos and Delphi,  Zeus = top, king, father both ogds nadm ortal, supreme lord  Greeks might recongize familiar dieties accept them into Pathenso, or import new god, if they desired not possible with Monotheistic Zeus and Monotheism  Anthropomorophic conception of Zeus, father husband and lover,  Power; sky and upper air, thnd, lighting nad rain; gold upholds the highest moral values in the order of the universes o That he absorbs unto himself, dividd among and shared by other deides o Protect the family, clain, the state, campion the universal moral and ethical repsonsibilities that these human associations entils o Imposes ties of hospitability, protect suppliants, uphold sanctity of oats, defend of all right and just in more advanced civilizations  Strong element of monotheism emerge from begin; linked to antorphmorphic Zeus; o Abstract philosophica and religious theories of supreme power,  HOMER AND HESIOD: Zeus is questionable the soveingn deity, concenred with moral values o Motheism and patraiarch are tested by other divities o Hera’s power to ward Zeus’s plans, Aphro can bend all the gods to her will including Zeus except for the three virigns; Hestia, Athena and Artemis o Demeter angry at Zeus force the gods to come to her terms o Zeus must yield to the Fates; but this is not always the case  Evolution of Zeus as the supreme god; amight god of morality and justice o Zues is more a unquesiton absolute and spiritual authority cam through the writings of religious poets and philosphies o Hesiod: hard message of the righeouness and warns of the Terros of Zeus’ punishment of the wicked; WORK AND DAYS ▪ Makes overweeing humb,e champison the obscure, make crooked straight and strikes down the hautghty  Xenophanes: poet and philosopher: pre socratic; argued AGAINST ANTHROPOM, said one supreme onathropmorophic god o Homer and Hesodi are bums; o Ethiopians say gods are flat nosed, and black, T Hracians tha theirs are fair and ruddy o Not like them either in body of mind  Asechulus Agamemnon: o God by the name of Zeus; universality of supreme diety;  MONOTHEISM AND POLYTHEISM are not mutually exclusive, o Christianity; one god, in three divinie person , God the Father, Son and Holy Spirit, angels, saints, devils Greek Humanism  Anthropomorophism of the Greek linked to role as first humanism  Humanism; o Protagoras: man is measure of all things; challenging absolute values bu t relativistic atittudes o Morals ain idivudal arbiters of the human conditions o Sophocles; Antigones; ▪ Wonders are many, but none is more wonderful than man o Humans pay the gods highest compliment of casting them in their own images  Greek literature; reverence for supremacy of the gods, ienvitablity of fates; o Sense of predetermined destiny for each individual was nalzed, with meaning, and possibility for free will and indepdent actions o Realistic awareness of miseries, uncertainties nad unpredictability of human life ordained by the gods ▪ Lucky blessed more than suffering ▪ Suffering pitted against convictiosn that oral may teach glorious and triumphant heights in the face of dreaful uncertainties  Two POV; o Idealistic optimis and realistic pessmisim o Greeks humanism with emphasisi on the bueaity and wonder of moral achievement despite horrible disasters that God or fate may Dispense Myth Religion and Philopshy  Caution is about gneeraliztions concern Greek religious attitudes  Mythology, relgion and philosophy entwined; look at hem evidence  Homer offers Greek a lierary bible of human; queated like scripture; mystery religions provide dogma and rituals of a more exacting nature  Hesiod: divince revelaition more like bibiclical authority  Priests devote lives to service of gods  City states upheld by custom, tradition and law strict, moral and ethical codes o Dionysus not radily accepted o Greek thought profoundly about god, importality of the soul, meaning and ocnseuqenceo f voice, virtiue, platonic myth of Er; ▪ ER’ terrifying vision of heavne and hell, such it is a religious document  Greek philosophical thought can hold its own wit hthat of any so called higher religions Legendary History of Herodutus: FIFTH CENTURY BC  Best rep greek humanistic and religious atittudes  Sotry of Solon, Croesus nad Cyrus  MONO and Poly compatible  Jealous god of Solon, unlike wrathful deity of Old testament, o A god who makes manifest ot motal that it is better to be dead than alive  Dinvce communicate with mortals;  Interplay bbetween ifate, destiny and individual of human character and free will  Homeric COLOUR HERODTEAN VIEW o Profound sadness nad pit for hteh uman conditions, o Simple eluicidation of the dangers of hubris and irrevocable vengeance of Nemesis;the kernel theme that odmaintes Greek tradedy  HERODOTUS takes philosophy form Homer o In last book ILLIAD ▪ Priam great kind of Troy; comes to humble suppliant to Greek hero Achcilles in order to beg for the body of his son Hector, whom Achille killed o Achilles says no human actions is with chilling grief ▪ Two jars sit on the door sil of Zeus, filled with gifts he bestows, one jar of evils and other blessings ▪ Zeus missed bad with the good,  Herodtus conception of monotheistic god and message of knowledge through suffer are strickingly Aeschlean o Thems are thems of Greek tragic literature ; fate, god, guilty, and misguide mortal who by their own actions try to avoid htier destiny only to further fulfill it  Death of Atys; most Sophclean in tis movement and Coresus like Oedipull fulls his inevitable destines, each step he takesi n his blind attept to avoid fate brings him closer to its embrace o Never count a person happy until dead; happines cannot be judged until entire span  Jack Miles o Anthropomorphic God of the Tnaka; Hewbrew Bible; god as fictional character amny facets; o Happines and misery depends on unpreictale god; = Tanak and God of Homer and Herodotus Tragedy of Croesus  History of the Persian Wars; Britlant; Nature of Greek hUmanism; molds legal of Coesus into complet enadpowerful drama, within disci;lpined srcuture of shorter story  Herod = not professional theologian and philosphopher,  He shows history, mythology and relgioons are one  Solons Meeting with Croesus in Book 1 Meeting Between Solon and Croeus  Solon; came to courto Amasis in Egpy and to Croesus at Sardis; o 3-4 days, Solon tour of his treasuries , point out all them large nad welaht  Croesus ask Solon; who is happiest, Croesus asking this expecting him to be the answer o Solon said King Tellus The ATHENIAN ▪ b/c city, faring well, beautiful, good children, saw hcildrne born and all survive, life prosperous, end of his life was most brilliant ▪ athenaian against their neighbours near Elusis he wnet to help, Athenains buried as he died most glorious o Croesus asks who second ▪ Solon says Sleobis and Biton: agrives by races; • Carried off prizes at the festival, celebrate fetival to Hera, took there mother on charioat, oxen didn’t come but they pulls her themselves • Cleobis nad Biton honours greatly best for human being to obtain; • After feast, never more woke up, end of death held them fast, Argive had statues made of them step them up in Delph since they were best of man  Croesus gets pissed, o Solon says he sits limt on life at 70 years, o So Croesus a human being is compelte a thing of chance, o For the one who has great wealth is not at all more fortunate than the one who has only enough for daily needs unless fate attends him ▪ Everything that is fair, he also end his life well ▪ Man of good luck surpase the wealth, but unliky man in many ▪ Wealthy but unlucky is better ale fuldill desire, and endure diases • But is not similarly able to dope with doom and desire, good fortune keeps these things form he, he iunmiamed free fomr disease, deos not suffer evils o Thus no one human person is self sfficent, for he posess one thing, but not another  Croesus sends him away, cause he was ocnisdered ignorant for ingoring present goods and bids one look at the end of everything Atys, Adrastus and Boar DHUnt  Great Nemesis from god took hold of Groesus, because he thought he was happiest o Made clear to him the turht of hevils come in conenctions with his son  Croesus has two sons, one was mute, the other first in amny respects ATus o Dream indicated this Atys struct by point of iron weapson o Removed Atys from everything, piled up all the weapons  Came man for Sardis. Seized with misfortune, hand polluted with bloo,d Phrygian race, and of royal family o Begged to obtain purification and Coresup erufiied him o After, it was done, asked who dis, new fone, o SON OF GORDIAS< SON OF MIDAS, and I am called Adrastus, killed bother unintentionally, come here drive by father dpeived everything o He lived with Croesus  Great monster of boar appeard in Mysian Olympus, rushed down mountain and destyoed lands of Mysians o Croesus Doesn’t send son, but sends group of Lydian, hunting equipment, hounds, order them as they to be most zealous o Croesus’ son wants to go fight, and says that a boar doesn’t have an Iron tip  Croesus asks Adrastus to be guardian for son, o And only goes cause Croenus ask him, o Says his son will come home unharmed  Adrastrus tries to hit the board with his javelin, but missed it the son of Croeus;  Croesus called Zues, the Purifier, o God of the heart and as god of friendship, o God of hearth because he did not realize tthat he received in his palace, and nourishment as guest the murderer of his son, o God of friendship, because he send Adrastus as guardian found to be greatest enemy  Adras stood before the dead body, stretching forth his hands usrreende himself to Goresus, he blade Croesus salugher him as he destroyed the one that cleanesd him o Croeneus said that since Adras condemn youself to death, not responsible for this evil  Adras slaughted himself on the tomb, conscious he wsa the most oppressed nad misfortune of human  Croesus personal and domestic tragedy was compouned by political downfall o Cyris the great and Persians growing o Croesus kingdom of Lydia absorbed; o In cris; consulted raccles, believe that one of Apollo at Delpha could speak truth o Delphic reply about going to war with Persians ▪ If he went to War he would destoy a mighty empire, and he ended up destroying his own  Herodotus tells of the fall of Sardis, capital of Lydia nda fate of Croesus its king and other son, fine boy who couldn’t speak Defeat of Croesu by Cyrus the Great  Boy saw man coming for Croesus, and the mute kil spoke, and cried soldier do not kill Coreus;  Persian held Sardian d took Coreuss himself captive after hr urled for 14 years ; as oracle predicted o Great pyre erected, oreded Coresus bound in fetters mount it , and laong with him twice, children of Lydian ▪ Wanted ot offer them as first fruits of the booty to someo neo fh te goods, desire to fulfill a vow ▪ Learn tha Croesus who was god fearing man, see god save him o Croesus remembers at the Pyre; words of Solon, that no one of the living is happy ▪ Called out Solon name three times • Told them how huma beings, those in their own estimation considere themselve to be happy, ▪ Cyrus heard, and realize he was buring alive human,s feare treibutions, order burn fire to be quenched, • Told to take down pyre, made attempt unable to master fires o Croesus learn of Cyrus change of heard, he called upon Apollo, ▪ Storm clouds rushed, and out clear violent torrents of rains quenched the first  Cyrus knew that Croesus was beloved by god and a good man o They did friendship o Blamed god of Hellens isnceh e incited me to war, o Cyrus released him  Croesus became wise, benevolent counselor of Cyrus o Croesus sends to inquire priestess of Apollo why oracle had misled him o Priestess replies, tells of the way in which Apollo indeed tired to ameliorate Coresus fated misroders o Apollo saved him from burning, o When Coreus heard he agree it was his own fault and not that ogd  Story of Croeus narrated by Bacchylides of Ceo in 468 o Croesus himself ordered thye pyre to be lit, but Zeus extinguished nad APolo took Coreus to live happy among the Hyperborean as reward for his piety Herodtous as Myth Historian  HEROD ; giv
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