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Computing and Information Science
CIS 1200
Tuuli Kukkonen

Chapter 2: Looking at Computers: Understanding the Parts Understanding Your Computer Computers Are Data Processing Devices  Computer: data processing device that performs 4 major functions: o Input: gathers data, or allows users to enter data o Process: manipulates, calculates, or organizes data into info o Output: displays data and info in form suitable for user o Storage: saves data and info for later use What is the difference b/w data and information? Data :representation of a fact, a figure, or an idea (ie. a number, a word, picture, recording etc= little meaning to u) (ie. number 3578389 and name Zoe Deschanel) Information: data organized/presented meaningfully (ie. comp. gives computer listing showing Zoe can be reached by phone at (713) 555-3297= data is useful) How do computers interact with data and information?  Computers good for processing (manipulating, calculating, or organizing) data into information (input data, process data into info, output info)  Ie) come to Guelph= give personal data and dig photo (data) to comp, process= ID card (organized output of data); info stored into comp. for later Bits and Bytes: The Language of Computers How do computers process data into information?  Computer uses numbers to process data  information  uses language they understand: binary language: consist of 2 digits (0 and 1) to do things like processing data, print report, edit photo,  binary digit (bit): each 0 or 1  byte: 8 binary digits (bits) combined o a byte in evry letter, number, special character (@): K: 01001011 What else can bits and bytes be used for?  Also are what computer uses to represent quantity of data and info that it inputs and outputs o Word files, digital pics, etc : series (millions) of bits and bytes  To measure big files: use kilobytes (KB-1000 bytes), megabytes (MB- 1 mill bytes), gigabytes (GB- 1bill bytes), terabyte (TB): 1 trillion bytes(comp store) How does your computer process bits and bytes?  Combination of hardware and software used= process data and complete tasks (write letter, play game)  Hardware: any part of computer u can physically touch  Software: (w/out= cant do anything): set of comp programs which allows hardware to perform diff. tasks o Categories: application software , system software  Application software: programs used on computer to carry out tasks (ie) type doc, edit photo, create spreadsheet)  System software: programs that allow application software and hardware devices to work together o Ie) operating system (OS): common type; program controls comp. system functions, manage hardware (monitor, printer), allow user to interact w/ computer Types of Computers Are all computers the same?  two basic designs of computers: portable and stationary  notebook computer: (laptop computer) portable computer that has keyboard, monitor, etc in one compact case o power: battery unit, AC adapter  netbook: small, light weight notebook (7-10 inches), longer battery than notebook  tablet PC: similar to notebook but monitor swivels and fold flat o input data with a stylus pen across touch screen; input text with virtual keyboard  tablet computer: (ie. Apple iPad) mobile computer with flat multitouch-sensitive screen, virtual keyboard or separate (connect Bluetooth)  desktop computer: stationary with separate case for main comp. component and peripheral devices  peripheral device: component connected to computer ( moniter, keyboard)  all-in-one computer: (Apple iMac): eliminate need for separate tower cus comp keep comp processor&memory in monitor unit (many hv touch screen) Are there other types of computers?  Mainframe: large expensive comp support hundreds of users simultaneously o Use in insurance companies: ppl working on similar operation o College use-handle multitude of processing needs throughout campus o Execute diff comp programs at same time  Supercomputer: perform complex calculations quick and used where complex models requiring intensive calculations needed o Ie) weather forecasting, atomic energy research  Designed to execute few programs as quick as possible while mainframes designed to handle many programs running sm time but slower pace  embedded computer: specially designed, self contained computer chip in another device (ie. ur car) that hv own programming and not get input from u or interact with other systems  diff parts of comp hardware has one of functions: input, processing, output, or storage ***Figure 2.4*** Input Devices  input device: allow u to enter data (text, image, sounds) and instructions (user responses and commands) into computer (ie. microphone input sound, camera imput image); most common: o keyboard: used to enter typed data and commands o mouse: enter user responses and commands  stylus: input device look like pen but like mouse to tap commands or draw Keyboards Aren’t all keyboards the same?  QWERTY keyboard (most comp): get name from letters on keyboard, standard English layout, layout designed to prevent typewriter keys from jamming o even tho inefficient in speed, publicly prefer over more efficient (ie.Dvorak keyboard) o Dvorak: puts most used letters on “”home keys” (middle row of keyboard)= reduce distance fingers travel increase typing speed What’s special about notebook keyboards?  Save space and weight, have fewer keys (keys have several functions switched through Fn, shift… What are some alternative keyboards?  Flexible keyboards: full sized, can roll up, plug into usb port to use  Virtual laser keyboard: size of cell phone; projects image of keyboard and sensors detect motion of ur fingers as type on any flat surface  Bluetooth: wireless data transmission standard connecting electronic computing devices (cellphones, smartphones, comp.) to peripheral devices (keyboard, headset)  DX1 from Ergodex: keyboards for gamers; can put keys on any place of keyboard and program keys to execute keystrokes/ macros (series of taks) to perform a specific task How can I use my keyboard most efficiently?  Many keyboards have additional keys for special functions o Numeric keyboard: enter numbers quick o Function keys : shortcut for special tasks, referred as “F” keys cus start with F with number  Each software app, own functions to each F key (ie. F2: move text or graphics in FIGURE 2.9 PG 57 Word but allow editing of active cell in Excel  Many keys universal : F1= help key in most applications o Control (Ctrl) key: use w/ other keys for shortcut/tasks (ie. Ctrl+B= bold) o Insert key: a toggle key cus function change b/w 2 options each time pressed; toggle on= inserts new txt within a line of existing text, toggle off= replace existing w/ new as u type  Other toggle keys that hv off and on function: Caps Lock, Num Lock key o Windows key: (for Windows operating system)use alone= open Start menu ; or with others  Window 7/ Vista: Windows + M = minimize all windows; Windows + L= lock comp Are all conventional keyboards connected to the computer via wires?  Wireless keyboards: powered by batteries, send data to comp with radio frequency (RF) o Radio transmitter in keyboard send radio wave signals receive through receiving device pligged into USB port/ Bluetooth device o 6-30 ft from comp according to quality; 100 ft away for business or auditoriums Mice and Other Pointing Devices What kinds of mice are there?  Optical mouse: use internal sensor/laser to detect movement and send to comp to tell where to move on screen (not require mouse pad but use to enhance movement on uneven surface)  U have ergonomic needs= customize mouse : 3 buttons to open shortcut menus, fit hand grip, adjustable weight= good fit and control Wireless mice  Similar to wireless keyboard: battery to send data to comp by radio frequency/ Bluetooth  With RF keyboard and mouse= share sm receiver but for notebook, mice hv own receiver clip on bottom of mouse  Apple: Magic Mouse: multi-touch wireless mouse; top surface is button for scroll, swipe across mouse= move through pgs, tap mouse to click/doubleclick  MoGo mouse: fits into side of notebook, protects, and charges it; wireless; bluteooth to send data What other tasks can be done with a mouse?  Magnifier: box drag around screen to magnify hard to read (used by ppl w/ visual disabilities)  Web search: allow to quickly highlight word/phrase and press search on mouse= Web search  File storage: includes wireless USB receiver containing flash memory to store/backup files Do notebook computers include a mouse?  Most have touch pad (trackpad): small, touch sensitive area at base of keyboard use by move fingers across it (Mac: multi-touch trackpad: 1,2,3, or 4 finger action) o Most sensitive to taps, interprete as clicks; many notebook have button underneath pad for mouse click o Many notebooks hv : trackpoint device (joystick like nub to move cursor w/ tip of finger) What input devices are used in games?  Game controllers: force feedback joysticks steering wheels : connect to comp. o Deliver data in both directions: translate ur moves to comp & translate its response into forces on ur hands= better experience (some wireless-Wii-= more mobility)  Gaming consoles: PlayStation and XboX 360 use w/ comp w/ buttons and pointing devices Touch Screens How else can I input data and commands?  Touchscreen: display screen that responds to commands by touch with finger/ stylus o Becoming pop now with cell phone and tablet computers  Tablet PC has built in keyboard but touch screen better with virtual keyboard onscreen when need (have basic keysand special keys to switch b/w numbers, punctuation etc)  All in one desktop Pcs, and other desktop and notebook comp hv touch screen and portable media players (Apple iPod Touch: touch capability; nitendO DS  Digital notes= use digital pen with flash drive: portable electronic storage device that connect to a USB port on computer; can write on any conventional paper which is captured into flash drive and store; flashdrive connect to comp. = digital text Image Input How can I input digital images into my computer?  Dig. Camera, cell phone, camcorder take pic and video and are input devices used in remote settings (away from comp) and downloaded later to comp w/ data cable or wirelessly, recognized by comp  Scanner: also input images by creating digital image (printed, saved in storage, or emailed) How do I capture live video from my computer or device?  Webcam: small camera on top of monitor connect by cable or built into tablet/notebook comp o Takes pics but used most to capture/ transmit live video (HD) o Videoconferencing tech (video call) across internet w/ webcam and microphone (ie. ooVoo: video call with max 12 ppl)  Can exchange files, swap comp control, txt msg during call Sound Input Why would I want to input sound to my comp?  With sound input, can have convos with others, conference with work colleagues, record podcast..  Requires microphone (mic): allow u to capture sound waves (ie. ur voice) and transfer them to digital format on ur comp.  Many notebooks and desktop comp come w/ built in mic What types of microphones are available?  Unidirectional microphones: pick up sound from 1 direction (record podcast, phone calls)  Omnidirectional: pick up sounds from all directions at once (record +1 voice-conference call)  Bidirectional:receive sound equally from front and back of mic (interviews)  Clip-on microphones (lavalier microphones): presentations where hands free for other activities (write on board, move around room)  Close-talk microphones: usually attatched to headset usingspeech-recognition software= videoconferencing/ phone calls (hands are free and headset allows u to listen too) What input devices are available for ppl with disabilities?  Visually impaired users: voice recognition (if less severe, make larger keys) o Keys on touch screen easier  Can only use one hand: Maltron keyboard  Motor control issues (difficulty with pointing devices): trackballs manipulate w/ one finger and attatched to any surface (wheelchair)  Arm motion restrain: head mounted pointing devices used (camera on monitor and device to head (on a hat) ; move head= camera detect and controls cursor on screen; click= move device in hand, feet, mouth-blow it= sense it) Output Devices  Output device: allow u to send processed data out of comp as text, pics, sounds, or video o Ie. monitor (display screen): display text, pic, video as soft copies (only see onscreen) o Ie. printer: create hard copies ( copies u can touch) of text and graphics o Speakers, earphones: output for sound Monitors What are the different types of monitors?  Common: liquid crystal display (LCD) :aka flat-panel monitor is light and energy efficient  Light emitting diode (LED): in newer monitors, more energy efficient, better color accuracy, thinner panels (replaced cathode ray tube- CRT- monitor) o CRT is legacy technology (computing devices/peripheral that use techniques parts, and methods no longer popular); can still be used but when monitor fails, replace with LCD  Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays: : use organic compounds that produce light when exposed to electric current o Unlike others, no need backlight to function= less power needed (run longer on single battery than LED), thinner display (3mm), brighter, more environ. Friendly than LCD o Use: cell hpone, media player, camera How do LCD monitors work?  Grid of tiny dots (pixel) create image on monitor; made of 3 subpixels of red, blue, green (newer tv= 4 color yellow)  Made of 2+ sheets filled with liquid crystal solution; fluorescent panel at back of monitor makes light waves  Electric current pass liquid crystal sltn=crystal move and block fluorescent/ let shine through= image form on screen (color from subpixel combos) What factors affect quality of LCD monitor?  Aspect ratio: width-to-height proportion of monitor (b4= 4:3 ; now 16:9 or 16:10)  The screen resolution (clearness/sharpness of image) reflects # of pixels on screen o 1600( # of vertical columns) X 1200 (# of pixels in each column) o resolution of LCD monitor depend on screen size and aspect ratio  (can change resolution on it but still distorted)  Contrast ratio: measure of diff in light intensity b/w brightest white and darkest black produced o ratio low= colors fade when adjust brightness (prefer 400:1 and 1000:1) o when backlight turn off completely and not dimmed to lowest setting= 10000:1 or 50000:1  not used normally unless LED  Viewing angle: (measure in degrees) tell how far u can move to side/above/below monitor b4 image quality go to unacceptable levels (17 inchees + monitor= atleast 150 degree angle recomend  Brightness: (measured in nits – cd/m^2): measure of greatest amount of light showing when monitor show pure white (300 cd/m^2 recommended)  Response time: (milliseconds) measure time takes for pixel to change color (lower response= faster transitions=moving image appear smooth on screen) Is bigger screen size always better?  >monitor= display more (size may matter depend on what displayed  larger panel= more pixels (blueray movies need more pixels to display it) o view multiple doc or web pgs at sm time  BUT: cost: cheaper to buy 2 small than 1 big monitor What other features should I look for in an LCD monitor?  Built in features: speakers, webcams, microphones, multiformat card reader (display images directly on monitor/ download pictures quickly from camera memory card to PC)  Built in USB port: easy to connect extra peripherals; video ports (connect DVD player/ games) How do I show output to a large group of people?  Projector: a device that can project images from ur computer onto a wall or viewing screen o use in in business, education settings (presentations) o ie) 3M MPro 150: small, light, portable o Entertainment projectors (ie. Wonderwall): have stereo speakers and multimedia connectors= good for home for shows, dvds, images, video games in bigger format o HDMI port on laptop= connect to HDTV w/ one cable (DVI port works too) Printers Different types of printers  2 categories: inkjet and laser (both nonimpact)  nonimpact printer: spray ink/ laser beams transfer marks onto paper  impact printer: small keys strike paper through inked ribbon= marks on paper (not common) o ie) dot- matrix printer Advantages of inkjet printers  inkjet printer: spray tiny drops of ink onto paper (great for black and white txt and color images)  affordable, high quality prints quick and quietly, professional look when print w/ right paper  when buy: look at type and cost of ink cartridge needed (some use 2: black and color; others 4) Why would I want laser printer?  Faster printing speed than inkjet printers, higher
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