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Environmental Sciences
ENVS 2210
Ernesto Guzman

ENVS Unit 03 Pages 49-69 Bees’ Innards: Internal Organs for an Active Bee - Similarities and diffs btwn Central Nervous System of bees and humans o Insect brain shaped like malformed donut , gut runs through the hole  Maj lobe called “brain proper”  Nerves from brain to sensory parts of head  Segmental ganglia coordinate reflexes involved in fligh o rfight - Respiratory system unique to insects o Spiracles allow air to be pumped into and out of body o Air enters large balloon-like sac before conducted through body in smaller complex tubes (trachea) o Whole body even abdomen helps pump air o Repiratory wastes like carbon dioxide and water incorporated into haemolymph - Reproductive system is sketchy o Repro organs for female bees similar to most animals : ovaries, oviducts, vagina, associated glands BUT queen honeybees have spermatheca where she keeps supply of sperm for several years of laying eggs  Mature fertile queen will produce over 1000 eggs a day  Ovaries SO large she‟s unable to fly o Drones repro organ is most bizarre in world, has standard: testes, vas, and associated glands but structure is unusual form  Penis is like alien empire, it literally explodes (audibly) when drone mates w/ a queen  “When he is to become a „pop‟ he pops” Nervous System from Stem to Stern: Form and Function - CNS in insects has brain and main nerve trunks that extend the length of the body o Main nerve trunks are ventral, NOT dorsal like human bodies, paired NOT single like in humans, and interconnected w/ ganglia - Insect brain o Cerebrum (brain proper), and suboesophageal ganglion ehich resides in top of head o Brain of honeynbees contains 850 000 cells o Cerebral mass comprise three area: protocerebrum, deutocerebrum, and tritocerebrum o Whole brain is bilaterally symmertrical o Mushroom bodies (corpora pedunculata) resemble mushrooms, integrate sensory info as it pours from general nervous system (eyes, oceli, antennae, mouth, limbs, body surface)  Centres of mem and learning and subtly change as adult bees age and change behaviours accordingly o Bees have left and right hemi just like us, have central body (like corpius collosum) that integrates info from either hemi o Peripheral parts of brain also bilateral, largest parts are optic lobes that include compound eyes (can be considered par tof the brain b/c brain reaches the retinal cella) o Three ocelli also thought of as three lobes of brain that end in photoreceptive cells o Antennal lobes each side of front of brain, sensory nerves come rom antennae o Within cerebral mass = neurosecretory cells that produce (hormones) involved in regulation growth, dev, moulting, eh etc. o Circumoesophageal commissures on either side of oesophagus, connect to the suboesophageal ganglion  Nerves to and from mouthparts enter and leave brain via this ganglion  From suboesophageal ganglion, two ventral nerve cords go into neck and thorax o Double ventral nerve cord extends beneath ventral diaphragm - Ganglia o Masses of nervous tissue, interconnecting motor and sensory neurons, associative neurosn o Connect btwn nerve cords o Messages pass through - Nerve o Bundle of nervous tissue (axons) long/short string o Motor neurons or fibres that carry infro to muscles limbs etc o Sensory neurons that carry info from periphery to CNS, then to brain o Associative neurons connect sensory and motor neurons o Reflex connections - If learning isn‟t involve but the brian is still involved then the reaction is considered an instinct o Flying and stining, instinctive attraction to certain flowers - Nerve cells/neurons function through electrochemistry, depolarization when sodium rushed into cell and them potassium leaves it - Synapses is release of neurotransmitter for msynaptic vesicles - Neurotransmitter, chemical acetylcholine how - Serotonin involded as neuromodulator in neurotransmission in antennae and modulate responses to pheromones Chapter III-10 Respiration - Unlike humans‟, no lungs and no blood to carry oxygen and carbon dioxide - Respiration organisms take in oxygen and use it to oxidize organic compunds in the body - Metabolism releases energy used in general activity and generates carbon dioxide - Insect blood (haemolymph) is watery and has no red blood cells to carry oxygen, so it transports carbon dioxide in solution throughout body - So, oxygen gets into insects‟ body ti
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