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ENVS 2210 (46)
Chapter 5-8

Bees - Biology and Management, Chapters 5-8

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Environmental Sciences
ENVS 2210
Ernesto Guzman

Chapter Summaries Bees Biology and ManagementChapter 5Processing FoodWasteThe Alimentary tract anddigestive system extends from the mouth to the anus as a tube running the complete length of the beeMouthparts make a complex and sealable tube for sucking up liquids and also comprise the chewing mandibles that are involved in processing solid foodThe mouth is closed when the sucking pump activates thus food is pumped into the oesophagus a tube extending through the head and thoraxTwo sets of Salivary glandsone in the head and the other in the thoraxoBoth share a common duct that conveys saliva into the buccal cavity where it mixes with the food to dilute soften or lubricate it as it is ingestedProventriculusacts as a valve regulating the flow of material from the oesophagus including the honey stomach into the ventriculus the main digestive organ and the reverAs food enters the ventriculus it becomes surrounded by a very thin fine and permeable membrane of chitinthought that the membrane may offer some protection for the ventricular wall against abrasion especially by pollen as it passes down the gutAnterior Intestinea tube at the end of the ventriculus in which food waste is pumped intoOverwintering bees store large amount of feces in the rectumMass Defication is part of thermoregulation in the giant honeybeeExcretion is mostly carried out by the Malpighian tubuleshave a function similar to that of kidneysMalpighian tubules are also involved in maintaining proper balances of water and salts in the insects bodyChapter 6The Circulatory SystemInsect blood is mostly clear yellowish liquidNOT involved in transporting oxygen around the bodyHaemolymphcomposed of liquid plasma in which are suspended cellsHaemocytesoAct like human white blood cells ingesting invading bacteria other microorganisms and tissue debris
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