Human Development 1
Chapter 1: Human Development Today and it’s Origins
Humanity Today: A Demographic Profile
It was not until about 400 years ago that the world population reached 500
Total Fertility Rate (TFR) : number of births per woman.
The TFR worldwide is currently 2.8. However, the TFR has been declining
sharply for over a decade and will decline to 2.1 by 2050 if current trends
Variations Across Countries
The current population of developed countries is 1.2 billion.
2 reasons why the US is following a different demographic path than other
o the Us has a TFR of 2.0, which is below the replacement rate of 2.1 but
still higher than the TFR in most other developed countries
o The US allows more legal immigration than most other developed
countries do, and there are tens of millions of undocumented
immigrants as well.
The demographic contrast of developed countries compared to the rest of the
world is stark not only with respect to population but also in other key areas,
such as income and education.
Differences between developed and developing countries
o The cultures of developed countries tend to be based on
individualistic values such as independence and self-expression.
o Developed countries prize collectivistic values such as obedience and
o Most countries contain a variety of cultures, some of which may be
relatively individualistic whereas others are relatively collectivistic.
Variations Within Countries
Majority culture: within a country, the cultural group that sets most of the
norms and standards and holds most of the positions of political, economic,
intellectual, and media power.
Contexts: settings and circumstances that contribute to variations in
pathways of human development, including SES, gender, and ethnicity, as
well as family, school, community, media, and culture
Socioeconomic status (SES): persons social class, including educational
level, income level, and occupational status
Gender is a key factor in development throughout the life span in every
Ethnicity is a crucial part of human development.
Ethnicity: group identity that may include components such as cultural
origin, cultural traditions, race, religion, and language.
Human Origins and the Birth of Culture
Ontogenetic: Characteristic pattern of individual development in a species Phylogenetic: Pertaining to the development of a species
Our Evolutionary Beginnings
Charles Darwin—Natural Selection—evolutionary process in which the
offspring best adapted to their environment survive to produce offspring
Through natural selection, species change little by little with each generation,
and over a long period of time they can develop into new species
When did human evolution begin? Humans, chimps, and gorillas had a
common primate ancestor until 6 to 8 million years ago.
Hominid: evolutionary line that le to modern humans
The most important difference between early hominids and other primates
was the development of bipedal locomotion, or walking on 2 legs.
About 3 and half million years ago the hominid line split into two, with one
line eventually dying out and the other a line of Homo species leading to
The most important change during this was the brain, which became over
twice as large as the brain of early hominids
The female Homo’s pelvis became wider to allow the birth of bigger brained
Hunter gatherer: social and economic system in which economic life is
based on hunting (mostly by males) and gathering edible plants (mostly by
As the Homo species continued to evolve, it developed the ability to make
tools and control fire.
Homosapiens: species of the modern humans.
The Origin of Cultures and Civilizations
Upper Paleolithic Period: Period of human history from 40,000 to 10,000
years ago, when distinct human cultures first developed. This is when:
o Humans began to bury their dead
o Cultural differences developed between human groups,
o Trade took place between human groups
o There was a rapid acceleration in the development of tools.
o First boats were invented.
Neolithic Period: era of human history from 10,000 to 5,000 years ago,
when animals and plants were first domesticated.
o The key to this was climate change.
o The Upper Paleolithic was the time of the last Ice Age, when average
global temperatures were about 10 degrees Celsius below todays
o As the climate began warmer, new plants evolved.
Civilization: form of human social life, beginning about 5000 years ago,
includes cities, writing, occupational specialization, and states. Human Development 3
Chapter 1: Human Development Today and it’s Origins
State: Centralized political system that is an essential feature of civilization.
o They had laws and sewer systems, and their social classes includes
priests, soldiers, craftsmen, government workers and slaves.
o They produced vast range of goods including jewellery, sculpture,
sailboats, wheeled wagons, and swords.
Shaman: religious leader who believed to have special powers and special
knowledge of the spirit world.
Human Evolution and Human Development Today.
Evolutionary Psychology: branch of psychology that examines how
patterns of human functioning and behaviour have resulted from adaptations
to evolutionary conditions.
Biologically we have changed little since the origin of Homo sapiens about
200,000 years ago, yet how we live has changed in astonishing ways.
We are able to adapt in any situation.
Ancient Conceptions of Development
Conceptions of Human Development in 3 Traditions
The apprentice stage comprises childhood and adolescence. This is the stage
in which a boy is dependent on his parents, as he grows up and learns the
skills necessary for adult life.
In the householder stage, the young man has married and is in charge of his
own household. This is a time of many responsibilities, ranging from
providing for a wife and family to taking care of elderly parents to engaging
in productive work.
The third stage, forest dweller, begins when a man’s first grandson is born.
The religious ideal in this stage is for a man to withdraw from the world and
literally live in the forest, devoting himself to prayer and religious study, and
cultivating patience and compassion.
The final stage of life is that of renunciant. The renunciant goes even further
than the forest dweller in rejecting worldly attachments. The purpose of life
in this stage is simply to prepare for the end of this life and entry into the
Another conception of life stages was proposed by Solon (PAGE 18)
One important difference among the 3 ancient conceptions of human
development is that they have very different ways of dividing up the life
span, from just 4 stages in the Dharmashastra to 14 in the Talmud. Scientific Psychosexual Theory
o Psychosexual theory: Freud’s theory proposing that sexual desire is
the driving force behind human development.
o Superego: angel (good)
o ID: pleasure principle (bad)
o Ego: conscious self
Freud’s Psychosexual Stages
Age Period Psychosexual stage Main Features
Infancy Oral Sexual sensations centered
on the mouth; Pleasure
derived from sucking,
Toddlerhood Anal Sexual sensations centered
on the anus; high interest in
feces; pleasure derived from
Early childhood Phallic Sexual sensations move to
genitals; sexual desire for
other sex parent and fear of
same sex parent
Middle childhood Latency Sexual desires repressed;
focus on developing social
and cognitive skills
Adolescence Genital Re-emergence of sexual
desire, now directed outside
It is easy to see plenty of gaping holes in the psychosexual theory. Freud’s
view on childhood was based on the retrospective accounts of patients who
came to him for psychoanalysis, mainly upper class women in Vienna.
Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory
Psychosocial Theory: E