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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 1010
Susan Chuang

FRHD 1010* 1/29/2012 7:57:00 PM  Chapter One  Human Development Today and Its Origins  Human Development: the way people grow and change across the life span; includes people’s biological, cognitive, psychological and social functioning  Culture: total pattern of a group’s customs, beliefs, art and technology  Globalization: increasing connections between different parts of the world trade, travel, migration, communication Humanity Today: A Demographic Profile  an understanding of how human development takes place in counties all over the world  striking demographic feature is human population size  Total fertility rate (TFR): in a population, the number of births per women (currently 2.8, decline to 2.1 by 2050)  Replacement rate is 2.1 of a stable population VARIATIONS ACROSS COUNTRIES  Distinguish between the demographic profiles of developed countries and developing countries in terms of population, income and education  “global demographic divide” between the wealthy and economically developed countries, and the economically developing countries  Developed countries: world’s most economically developed and affluent countries, with the highest median levels of income and education (18%)  Developing countries: countries that have lower levels of income but are experiencing rapid economic growth (82%)  Developed countries are expected to decline due to a low fertility and no immigration  2 reasons why united states the united states are following different demographic paths, o 1) US has a TFR of 2.0 (slightly below the replacement rate of 2.1) o 2) US allows more legal immigration then most developed countries and a lot of undocumented immigrants  Nearly all the world population growth from now to 2050 will take place in developing countries  Income; 40% live off of $2 per day, 80% live off of family income $6,000 per year  Africa’s economic growth remains the poorest region in the world  Education; higher education for developed countries, lower education for developing countries  Cultural differences between developed and developing countries; o Developed countries are based on individualistic: cultures values such as independence and self-expression o Developing countries are based on collectivistic: cultural values such as obedience and group harmony (relationship) o * the overall distinction between individualism and collectivism is useful for describing broad differences between human groups  Developing countries divide between rural and urban areas o People in urban areas have higher incomes, more education, and better medical care o Traditional countries: in developing countries, a rural cultural the adheres more closely to cultural traditions then people in urban areas do, tend to be collectivistic THE CANADIAN CONTEXT  Before 1967 immigration act, 80% of immigrant were from European countries  The act removed the explicit discrimination based on country of origin, created a points system (eg. High education, more points)  19.8% immigrants, second largest country (India)  48% Toronto, 15% Vancouver, 12 % Montreal  220 countries, 150 languages, 70% of Canada’s foreign- born population has a mother tongue that is neither English or French CULTURAL FOCUS  India is a great place for anyone interested in studying human development  India is the second most populous country in the world  Family closeness is highly valued in India and most households are multigenerational  Most marriages are arranged by parents and family members, meet briefly before the marriage  Caste system: in Hindu culture of India, an inherited social hierarchy, determined by birth, reincarnation effects there moral and spiritual conduct in their previous life (unique feature of Indian society) o People in high ranked castes tend to have the most economic resources, better access to education and health care; where as lower castes have little money and other resources o Attempts have been made to abolish the caste system, too strong of an influence  India is a developing country  Rapidly changing, economy has been booming, lifting millions of Indians out of poverty  India is now a world leader in manufacturing, telecommunications and services VARIATIONS WITHIN COUNTRIES  All developed countries are relatively wealthy, human development is Japan is different from human development in France or Canada  All developing countries are less wealthy than developed countries but human development in China is different from the human development in Brazil  Important variation in human development within developed and developing countries  Majority culture: within a country, the cultural group that sets most of the norms and standards and holds most of the positions of political, economic, intellectual and media power  Minority cultures can be defined by ethnicity, religion, language etc.  Variations in human development also occur due to differences within countries in the settings and circumstances of individual lives  These setting and circumstances that contribute to variations of human development are called contexts: settings and circumstances that contribute to variations of human development (eg. Gender and ethnicity, family, school, community, media and culture)  3 important aspect of variation; 1) socioeconomic status (SES): persons social class, including educational level, income level and occupational status - important in shaping human development - sharp in developing countries 2) Gender - developed countries; men and women wear/do/enjoy the same things but inequality does exist - developing countries; men and women have strong gender differences 3) Ethnicity: group identity that may include components such as cultural origin, cultural traditions, race, religion, and language - minority ethnic groups arise as a consequence of immigration - most of the ethnic minority groups have values that are less individualistic and more collectivistic then majority culture  Human Origins and the Birth of Culture  Ontogenetic: characteristic pattern of individual development in a species  Phylogenetic: the development of human species OUR EVOLUTIONARY BEGINNINGS  Basic principles of the theory of evolution;  1) Charles Darwin his book The Origin of Species. o Species change through the process of natural selection: evolutionary process in which the offspring best adapted to their environment survive to produce offspring of their own o Through natural selection, species change little by little with each generation, and over time they can develop into new species o Darwin’s theory of evolution; evidence verified the theory and supported the principle of natural selection as the main mechanism of evolutionary change  When did human evolution begin? o Ancestors split into 3 paths, leading to the development of humans as well as to chimpanzees and gorillas o Hominid: evolutionary line that led to modern humans  Important difference between hominids and primates was the development of bipedal locomotion (walking on two legs) o Useful because it freed the hands for other things (eg. Carrying food, using tools, prey, climbing)  The hominid line split into = Homo species (modern humans) o Important change = the size of the brain  Hunter-gather: social and economic system in which economic life is based on hunting (mostly by males) and gathering edible plants (mostly by females) o Men were the hunters, protected there family o Women were home caring for children , gathered little foods  Homo species developed, they had the ability to make tools and control fire (cook food)  Increase in brain size, 1) female pelvis 2) fire 3) teeth and jaw  Homo sapiens: species of modern humans o Thinner and lighter bones THE ORIGIN OF CULTURES AND CIVILIZATIONS  Upper Paleolithic period: period of human history from 40,00 to 10,00 years ago, when distinct human cultures first developed o Art appeared, musical instruments, paintings on cave walls, small ivory attached to clothes, decorative objects from bone, shell and human and animal figures carved from ivory or clay o The time of the last ice age  Important changes mark the upper Paleolithic, 1) humans began to bury their dead 2) cultural differences developed between human groups 3) trade took place between human groups 4) rapid acceleration in the development of tools 5) the first boat was invented 6) (language may have first appeared)  Neolithic Period: era of human history from 10,000 to 5,000 years ago, when animals and plants were first domesticated o Next period of dramatic change o Climate change (new food, new tools) o The animals in the Upper Paleolithic Period became extinct (maybe over hunted, or failed to adapt to climate change  Civilization: form of human social life, beginning about 5,000 years ago, the includes cities, writing, occupational specialization into differnet kinds of work, differences among wealth and status, which is all known as a states: centralized political system that is an essential feature of a civilization o Final major historical change (provides a basis of how we live today)  Shamans: religious leader believed to have special powers and special knowledge of the spirit world  Timeline pg 13 HUMAN EVOLUTION AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT TODAY  How we develop today is based on our evolutionary history  We share characteristics with our hominid relatives, such as large brains, childhood dependence, and living in social groups  Evolutionary Psychology: branch of psychology that examines how patterns of human functioning and behaviour have resulted from adaptations to evolutionary conditions  Biologically we have changed little, but how we live has changed  Culture makes us unique as a species  Ancient Conceptions of Development  Human developed is a social science  How we change with age CONCEPTIONS OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN THREE TRADITIONS  Dharmashastras; the sacred law books of the Hindu religion o 4 stages of a man’s life  apprentice 0-25 (boy is dependent on parents, grows up and learns the skills and necessary for adult life)  householder 26-50 ( married, own household, responsibilities, providing for a wife and family)  forest dweller 51-75 (grandson is born, withdraw from world and live in the forest or withdraw from worldly attachments, devoting himself to prayer, religious study)  renunciant 76-100 (rejecting worldly attachments, be prepared for the end of his life)  Scientific Conceptions of Human Development  been around for a short time  3 major ways of conceptualizing human development; o 1) psychosexual approach 2) psychosocial approach 3) ecological approach FREUD’S PSYCHOSEXUAL THEORY  the earliest scientific theory of human development was devised by Sigmund Freud  a physician, worked with patients with mental problems  linked with traumatic event in childhood that has been repressed or in their unconscious mind  developed the method of psychotherapy which was called psychoanalysis o psychoanalysis: bring patients repressed memories from the unconscious into the consciousness (would be enough to heal the patient) o dreams and childhood experiences  Psychosexual Theory: Freud’s theory proposing that sexual desire is the driving force behind human development o Sexual desire is driving force o Sexual desire arises from a part of mind called id, and operates on the pleasure principle, meaning that it constantly seeks immediate and unrestrained satisfaction o Superego restricts the satisfaction of desires o Ego develops, serves as a mediator between id and the superego o Ego operates on the reality principle allowing child to seek satisfaction by the superego o (ID: pleasure principle) o (EGO: reality principle and mediator) o (SUPEREGO: adults teach infant to develop a conscious, restrict desires, guilt for disobeying) Freud’s Psychosexual Stages Age Period Psychosexual Stage Description Infancy Oral Sexual sensations centered on the mouth; pleasure derived from sucking, chewing, biting Toddlerhood Anal Sexual sensations centered on the anus; high interest in feces; pleasure derived from elimination Early Childhood Phallic Sexual sensations move to genitals; sexual desire for other-sex parent and fear of same-sex parent Middle Latency Sexual desires repressed; focus Childhood on developing social and cognitive skills Adolescence Genital Reemergence of sexual desire, now directed outside the family  too little or too much gratification of desire could result in fixation o the only way to remove fixation, was through psychoanalysis  Freud never studied children, only new information through the patients childhood  Influenced by Greek mythology; Oedipus complex ERIKSON’S PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY  Doubted Freud’s psychosexual theory  Psychosocial theory: Erikson’s theory that human development is driven by the need to become integrated into the social and cultural environment o Two crucial differences; o 1) Not based on sexual urges but need to integrate into sociocultural environment o 2) Development continues throughout the life span  Eight stages of development o Each stage, developmental challenge or crisis that the person must resolve Erikson’s Eight Stages of Psychosocial Development Age Period Psychosocial Stage Description Infancy Trust vs. mistrust Establish bond with trusted caregiver Toddlerhood Autonomy vs. shame and Develop a healthy sense doubt of self as distinct from others Early Childhood Initiative vs. inferiority Initiate activities in a purposeful way Middle Childhood Industry vs. inferiority Being to learn knowledge and skills of culture Adolescence Identity vs. identity Develop a secure and confusion coherent identity Early Adulthood Intimacy vs. isolation Establish a committed, long-term love relationship Middle Adulthood Generativity vs. stagnation Care for others and contribute to well-being of the young Late Adulthood Ego integrity vs. despair Evaluate lifetime, accept it as it is  Erikson’s psychosocial theory = better than Freud’s psychosexual theory  Learning Theory  Two theories; 1) behaviorism 2) Social Learning  John Locke; wrote the first parenting manual, had no children himself o Locks revolutionary idea was that all children are born as a tabula rasa, a blank slate. (parents rewarded good behaviour and made shame of bad behaviour without harmful ways)  Focus on experience  Rewards and punishment  Behaviorism  Watson; anything can be learned  Pavlov; classical conditioning o Behaviors can be conditions by pairing stimulus with response  B.F Skinner; operant conditioning o Consequences determine future behaviour o Positive reinforcement o Punishment- decrease future behaviour  Social Learning Theory  Watching- imitating/observational learning  Monkey see, monkey do o Under what conditions  Canadian-Bandura-Social cognitive theory o More complicated than observing o Actively try to UNDERSTAND BRONFENBRENNER’S ECOLOGCAL THEORY  Ecological theory: Bronfenbrenner’s theory that human development is shaped by five interrelated systems in the social environment o Focuses on the multiple influences that shape human development in the social environment o Immediate environment is important (eg. Mother-child relationship, child’s development) o Theory was intended to draw attentions to cultural environment that people experience as they develop and to the different levels of a person o Bioecological theory (more biological dimension of cultural environment) o Culture is very important within this theory  Cultural beliefs and values of the macrosystem are the basis for children’s development  Importance of historical contexts as influences on development  Children and adolescents are active participants in development o 5 levels or systems that play part in human development;  1) Microsystem: immediate environment, people experience their daily lives, relationships with family, friends, teachers (CHILD-PARENT)  the child is an active agent in this system  most research in developmental psychology  use the term context rather than microsystem  2) Mesosystem: interconnections between the various microsystems (CHILD-PARENT, CHILD-TEACHER)  3) Exosystem: social institutions (schools, media religious institutions) that have indirect but potentially important influences on development (NEIGHBOURHOODS)  4) Macrosystem: cultural beliefs and values and the economic and governmental systems that are built on those beliefs and values (CULTURE)  5) Chronosystem: change that occurs in developmental circumstances over time, with respect to individual development and to historical changes (OUTSIDERS) o direct transactions o mediated (indirect) transactions A STAGE MODEL  Emerging adulthood: new life stage in developed countries, lasting from the late teens through the twenties, in which people are gradually making their way toward taking on adult responsibilities in love and work o Not as dependent on their parents o Stages are useful way of conceptualizing human development  Age periods  How we change over time  Scholars of human development generally regard development as continuous rather than discontinuous  Scientific Study of Human Development  The field of human development is based on scientific research THE FIVE STEPS OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD  Scientific method: process of scientific investigation, involving a series of steps from identifying a research questions through forming a hypothesis, selecting research methods and designs, collecting and analyzing data, and drawing conclusions o Involves 5 steps  1) identifying a questions to be investigated  2) forming a hypothesis - Hypothesis: in the scientific process, a researcher’s idea about one possible answer to the questions proposed for investigation  3) choosing a research method and a research design - Research Method: in the scientific process, the approach to investigating the hypothesis - Research Design: plan for when and how to collect the data for a study  4) collecting data to test the hypothesis - Sample: sunset of population for which data are collected in a scientific study - Population: in research, the entire category of people represented by a sample - Procedure: the way a study is conducted and the data are collected  5) drawing conclusions that lead to new questions and new hypotheses - Peer reviewed: in scientific research, the system of having other scientists review a manuscript to judge its merits and worthiness for publication - Theory: framework that presented a set of interconnected ideas in a original way and inspires further research  ETHICS IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH  The requirements of Institutional Review Board (IRB) and the ethical guidelines include; o Protection from physical and psychological harm o Informed consent prior to participation - informed consent: standard procedure in social scientific studies that entails informing potential participants of what their participation would involve, including any possible risks, and giving them the opportunity to agree to participate o Confidentially o Deception and debriefing  Methods and Designs in Research  Different ways of investigating research questions which have both strengths and limitations RESEARCH METHODS Methods Advantages Limitations Questionnaire Large sample, Preset responses, no quick data depth collection Interview Individuality Time and effort of coding Qualitative: data that is and complexity collected in nonnumerical Quantitative: data that is collected in numerical form Observations Actual Observation may affect behaviour, not behaviour self-report Ethnographic research: Entire span of Researcher must live research method that daily life among participants; involves spending extensive possible bias time among the people being studied Case studies Rich, detailed Difficult to generalize data results Biological measurements Precise data Expensive; relation to behaviour may not be clear Experimental research: Control, May not reflect real life method that entails identification comparing an experimental of cause and group that receives a effect treatment of some kind to a control group that receives no treatment Independent: variable that is different from the experimental group than for the control group Dependent: outcome that s measured to calculate the results of the experiment by comparing the experimental and control group Intervention: program intended to change the attitudes or behaviour of the participants Natural experiment: Illuminate- Unusual circumstances; situation that exists gene- rare naturally but provides environment interesting scientific relations information  Reliability and Validity o Important that the research methods have both o Reliability: in scientific research, the consistency of measurements across different occasions o Validity: in scientific research, the extent to which a research method measures what it claims to measure RESEARCH DESIGNS  Cross-sectional research: research design that involves collecting data fro people of variety of ages on a single occasion o Then examines potential relations between the data o Most common type of research design  Correlation: statistical relationship between two variables such that knowing one of the variables makes it possible to predict the other  Longitudinal Research: research design in which the same persons are followed over time and data are collected on tow or more occasions o Cohort Effect: in scientific research, an explanation of group differences among people of different ages based on the fact that they grew up in different cohorts or historical periods Research Designs: advantages and Limitations Method Advantages Limitations Cross-sectional Quick and inexpensive Correlations difficult to interpret Longitudinal Monitors change over Time, expense, time attrition PAGE 38-41 SUMMARY FRHD 1010* 1/29/2012 7:57:00 PM  Chapter Two  Genetic Influences On Development  Genetic Basics GENOTYPE AND PHENOTYPE  Nearly all cells in the human body contain 46 chromosomes in 23 pairs with 1 chromosome from each pair, from mother and from father o Chromosome: sausage-shaped structure in the nucleus of cells, containing genes which are paired, expect in reproductive cells o Chromosomes are composed of complex molecules know as DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): long strand of cell material that stored and transfers genetic information in all life forms o The DNA in the chromosomes is organized into segments called genes: segment of DNA containing coded instructions for the growth and functioning of the organism (basic unit of hereditary information)  Genes contain paired sequences of chemicals called nucleotides (functioning and replication of the cell)  23,00 genes in our 46 chromosomes, total human genome: entire store of an organism’s hereditary information  totality of an individual’s genes in the genotype: organism’s unique genetic inheritance  the person’s actual characteristics are called phenotype: organism’s actual characteristics, derived from the genotype  difference between genotype and phenotype is the person’s environment  Relationship between both, Dominant-recessive inheritance: pattern of inheritance in which a pair of chromosomes contains one dominant and one recessive gene, but only the dominant gene is expressed in the phenotype  Each form of gene (dominant and recessive) is called allele: on a pair of chromosomes, each of two forms of a gene  On allele dominant- recessive occurs (meaning the dominant gene influences the phenotype)  Incomplete Dominance: form of dominant- recessive inheritance in which the phenotype is influenced primarily by the dominant gene but also to some extent by the recessive gene  Most blood cells are shaped like disk  when 2 recessive genes for the sickle-cell trait a person will have sickle-call anemia (clogs up the blood vessels and cause pain, early death)  One recessive gene stickle-cell trait and one dominant gene will have malaria  Most characteristics in human development are not determined solely by a single pair of genes  Human Genome Project  Polygenic Inheritance: expression of phenotypic characteristic due to the interaction of multiple genes (eg. Height, weight, skin tone, intelligence, personality) THE SEX CHROMOSOME  23 pairs of chromosomes, 1 pair is different from the rest o which are the sex chromosomes: chromosomes that determine whether an organism is male (XY) or female (XX) o Y chromosome is smaller, all eggs in mother carry an X chromosomes, but sperm may carry either an X or a Y chromosome o The father’s sperm determines the sex of the child o Many cultures have beliefs about how to predict the baby’s sex o Biological consequences for prenatal development  Only having one X chrom makes males more vulnerable the females to a recessive disorder that are linked to X chrom.  If a female had one X chrom that contains the recessive disorder, the disorder will not show up on her phenotype because the dominant gene of her other X chrom will prevent being expressed, she will be the carrier of the disorder to the next generation, but will not have the disorder herself  If male receives one X chrom containing the recessive gene disorder, he will have the disorder because he has no other X chrom that will contain the dominant gene, Y chrom cannot fight off the disorder (pg 49*) o X-linked inheritance: pattern of inheritance in which a recessive characteristic is expressed because it is carried on the male’s X chromosome  Infertility  Infertility: inability to attain pregnancy after a least a year of regular sexual intercourse CAUSES ON INFERTILITY  Men; o Low sperm count o Excessively tight underwear o Hot baths or saunas o Quality of sperm is poor, due to disease or defects in sperm manufacturing o Low motility (cant swim well)  Genetic  Smoking  Alcohol  Age o These problems may be genetic or may be caused by behaviour (drugs, alcohol, smoking)  Women; o Inability to ovulate caused by;  Disease  Drug use  Alcohol  Smoking  Extremely under/overweight  Age  Hormonal imbalance INFERTILITY TREATMENTS  Assisted reproductive technologies (ART): method for overcoming infertility that include artificial insemination, fertility drugs, and IVF  Artificial insemination: procedure of injecting sperm directly into the uterus o Donor insemination; a man other than the woman’s husband or partner provides the sperm  Fertility Drugs o The drugs mimic the activity of the hormones that normally provoke ovulation o Multiple births  In Vitro Fertilization (IVF): form of infertility treatment that involves using drugs to stimulate the growth of multiple follicles in the ovaries, removing the follicles and combining them with sperm, then transferring the most promising zygotes to the uterus INFERTILITY WORLDWIDE  Infertility belt: geographical area in central Africa with infertility rates as high as 30%, apparently due to high rates of malnutrition and STI’s  Genes and Environment in Human Development  Genes have influence on human development  Nature-nurture debate: debate among scholars as to whether human developed is influenced mainly by genes (nature) or environment (nurture)  Both genes and environment play key roles in human development PRINCIPLES OF BEHAVIOUR GENTICS  Behaviour genetics: field in the study of human development that aims to identify the extent to which genes influence behaviour, primarily by comparing persons who share different amounts of their genes (through twin and adoption studies) o Identical or monozygotic (MZ) twins: twins who have exactly the same genotype o Fraternal or dizygotic (DZ) twins: twins that result two ova are released by a female instead of one, and both are fertilized by sperm  Heritability: statistical estimate of the extent to which genes are responsible for the differences among persons within a specific population, with values ranging from 0 to 1.00 o The higher the heritability, the more characteristic is believed to be influenced by genetics o Heritability measures phenotype rather than genotype o Concordance Rate: degree of similarity in phenotype among pairs of family members, expressed as a percentage. (range 0% to 100%, the higher the range the more similar the two persons are)  Comparisons of concordance rates are made between MZ and DZ twins GENE-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS: EPIGENESIS AND REACTION RANGES  Heritability shows genes influence development and also environment influences on how genes are expressed  Related idea Epigenesis: in development, the continuous bidirectional interactions between genes and environment o Epigenetic theory; genetic responds constantly to environmental influences, development is influenced by gene (eg. Menstruation) (epigenesis: genes ----- environment)  Reaction Range: range of possible developmental paths established by genes; environment determines where development takes place within that range THEORY OF GENOTYPE- ENVIRONMENT EFFECTS  Theory of genotype- environment effects: theory proposing that genes influence the kind of environment we experience  According to this theory both genotype and environment make contributions to human development o Based on our genotype we create our own environments  The Three Forms of Genotype- Environment effects;  1) Passive genotype: in the theory of genotype-environment effects, the type that results from the fact that in a biological family, parents provide both genes and environment to their children o occurs in biological families, providing both gene and environment o father-daughter eg. Father is an illustrator, daughter becomes architect  2) Evocative genotype: the type that results occur when a person’s inherited characteristic evoke responses from others in the environment (eg. Happy child evokes positive interactions from peers)  3) Active genotye: the type that results when people seek out environments that correspond to their genotypic characteristic (process called Niche picking) o one who runs fast will try out for track o being drawn to environments that match their inherited abilities  Genotype-environment effects over time; o The 3 types of genotypes- environment effects operates throughout childhood, adolescence, and adulthood but their relative balance changes over time  Genes and Individual Development  The process of forming a new human being, begins long before sperm and egg are joined (the sperm and the egg themselves go through a process of development) SPERM AND EGG FORMATON  The only cells in the human body that do not contain 46 chromosomes are the reproductive calls or Gametes Cells: distinctive to each sex, that are involved in reproduction (egg cell in the ovaries of the female and sperm in the testes of the male) o Ovum: mature egg that develops in ovaries, about every 28 days in human females o Gametes form in the testes of the male ovaries of the female through process called meiosis: process by which gametes are generated, through separation and duplication of chromosome pairs, ending in four new gametes from the original cell, each with half the number of chromosomes of the original cell o Meiosis is a variation of mitosis: normal process of cell replication, in which the chromosomes duplicate and the cell divides to become two cells, each containing the same number of chromosomes as the original cell  Important sex differences in the process of meiosis; o Males;  Meiosis is completed before the sperm are released  four viable sperm o Females;  Final stage in meiosis only takes place when and if the ovum is fertilized by a sperm  Only one viable ovum hoards for itself a large quantity of cytoplasm: in an ovum, fluid that provides nutrients for the first 2 weeks of growth if the ovum is fertilized, until it reaches the uterus and beings drawing nutrients from the mother  Crossing over: at the outset of meiosis, the exchange of genetic material between paired chromosomes o Mixes the combinations of genes in the chromosomes, so that genetic material that originated from mother and father is rearranged in a virtually infinite number of ways (no child will be exactly like you) CONCEPTION  Vagina-certix-uterus-up the fallopian tubes towards the ovaries  Ovum is maturing into a follicle: during the female reproductive cycle, the ovum plus other cells that surround the ovum and provide nutrients o 14 days into a women’s cycle, the follicle bursts and ovulation takes place as the ovum is released into the fallopian tube o ovum is large, contains cytoplasm (provides nutrients) o 24 hours after the ovum enters the fallopian tube that fertilization occurs  When the sperm reach the ovum they begin to penetrate the surface of the cell o Aided by a chemical on the tip of the sperm that dissolves the ovum’s membrane o Then the head of the sperm detaches from the tail o The movement a sperm breaks through, a chemical change takes place in the membrane of the ovum that prevents any other sperm from getting in o When the sperm head reaches the nucleus of the ovum, the final stage of meiosis o Fertilization takes place as the 23 chromosomes from the ovum pair up with 23 chromosomes from the sperm and a new cell, the zygote: following fertilization the new cell formed from the union pf sperm and ovum  Prenatal Development  When sperm and ovum unite to become a zygote, the process of a human being is formed THE GERMINAL PERIOD (FIRST 2 WEEKS)  Germinal period: first 2 weeks after conception  Zygote travels down the fallopian tubes to uterus, implants on wall o While travelling, cell division begins o Blastocyst: ball of about 100 cells formed by about one week following conception  Divided into 2 layers  1) trophoblast: the outer layer of cells, which will go on to form structures that provide protection and nourishment to the embryo  2) embryonic disk: the inner layer of cells. Which will go on to form the embryo o amnion: fluid-filled membrane that surrounds and protects the developing organism in the womb o placenta: in the womb, gatekeeper between mother and fetus. Protecting the fetus from bacteria and wastes on the mother’s blood, and producing hormones that maintain the blood in the uterine lining and cause the mothers breasts to produce milk o Umbilical cord: structure connecting the placenta to the mother’s uterus THE EMBRYONIC PERIOD (WEEKS 3-8)  Developing structure to protect and nurture the organism during pregnancy  Embryonic period: weeks 3-8 of prenatal development o Gestation: in prenatal
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