Textbook Notes - Chapter 13 (Early Adulthood: Physical & Cognitive Development)

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Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 1010
Triciavan Rhijn

Chapter 13: Early Adulthood – Physical and Cognitive Development Did you know: D1 – leading causes of death vary among Canadian men and women > Accidents are the leading cause of death, followed by suicide and then cancer D2 – Young people are the fasting growing group to be infected with HIV. > Only about half of adolescents with knowledge of how HIV is transmitted actually change their sexual practices. D3 – Menstrual discomfort is normal. >Statistically speaking, some form of menstrual discomfort is a normal monthly experience. D4 – The majority of sexual assaults are committed by someone the victim knows. >According to the Ontario Women’s Directorate, 69% of women who are sexually assaulted know the person who assaults them. Only 1% of these women will report the assault to the police. D5 – Million-dollar lottery winners often feel aimless and dissatisfied if they quit their jobs after striking it rich. >That is true – wouldn’t it be nice to be in a position to conduct this research first hand! L01: Discuss the (theoretical) stage of emerging adulthood Emerging Adulthood – a theoretical period of development spanning the ages of 18 to 25, in which young people in developed nations engage in extended role exploration L02: Describe trends in physical development in early adulthood Physical Development – height of sensory sharpness, strength, reaction time, cardiovascular fitness; at their tallest and height remains stable through mid-adulthood; higher percentage of men’s body mass is muscle, men stronger than women; physical strength peaks in 20s and early 30s Visual acuity remains good til mid-adulthood; hearing tends to decline in late 20s/early 30s; heart muscle becomes more rigid; fertility declines; hair thinning, wrinkle L03: Discuss health in early adulthood, focusing on homosexuality, STIs, menstrual problems, and sexual coercion Health & Fitness ~ leading cause of death is accidents; suicide rates high Diet and Weight Obesity rising, heredity plays strong role; adaptive thermogenesis: process by which the body converts food energy (calories) to heat at a lower rate when a person eats less, because of, for example, famine or dieting Psychological factors – observational learning, stress and emotional states are contributors Exercise Need 30 minutes of activity five or more days a week to be healthy – reduces risks of heart, diabetes and certan cancers; helps with psychological disorders like anxiety or depression Substance Abuse and Dependence Substance Abuse: a persistent pattern of use of a substance characterized by frequent intoxication and impairment of physical, social, or emotional well-being Use to cope with medical problems and daily tensions, anxiety, depression, boredom Substance Dependence: persistent pattern of use of a substance that is accompanied by physiological addiction Tolerance: habituation to a drug such that increasingly higher doses are needed to achieve similar effects Abstinence Syndrome: characteristic cluster of symptoms that results from a sudden decrease in level of usage of a substance >>three most common types of abused substances are depressants, stimulants and hallucinogens • Depressents – slow activity of nervous system; alcohol, narcotics derived from opium (heroin, morphine, codeine), sedatives (barbituarates, methaqualone) o Alcohol is also an intoxicant, lessens inhibitions; 21-34 year olds; more than 1 million students between 18-24 accidentally injured while under influence, assaulted by other students or sexually assaulted by men who have been drinking • Stimulants – speed heartbeat and other bodily functions; nicotine, cocaine, amphetamines; cocaine accelerates heart, spikes blood pressure, constricts arteries of heart and thickens blood; overdoses cause restlessness, insomnia, tremors and death • Hallucinogenics: drugs that give rise to hallucinations; marijuana, ecstasy, LSD, PCP o Marijuana – motor coordination, short-term memory o Ecstasy – free from inhibition, working memory, increase anxiety, leads to depression Stress and Health 45% of Canadians feel that they do not have control over their stress levels L04: Sexuality Sexual activity with a partner usually peaks in 20s; Canadians have more sex partners in a lifetime than people in most other countries, and we are also more sexually adventurous, spending more time on foreplay and intercourse The origins of sexual orientation • 1% of Canadians aged 18-59 report to be homosexual • 94% of respondents identified themselves as heterosexual • what does the role of reinforcement play; critics point out most individuals become aware of their sexual orientation before they have sexual contacts • genetic factors – 52% of identical (monozygotic) twin pairs are ‘concordant’ for a gay male sexual orientation compared with 22% for fraternal twins • hormones also fuel sex drive and may influence whom one will find to be sexually attractive Sexual transmitted infections (STIs) • between 1997-2004, increase dramatically, especially ages 15-24 • Chlamydia most common (major cause of pelvic inflammatory disease/PID), gonorrhea, genital warts, genital herpes, syphilis, HIV/AIDS • Human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause skin warts, genital warts, pre-cancerous lesions • HIV/AIDS: most devastating, spreading rapidly around the world affecting 39 million people by end of 20 century, 19-30 year olds most at risk; 15-24 year olds infected •
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