Textbook Notes (369,099)
Canada (162,378)
FRHD 1020 (198)
c (6)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4.pdf

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Department
Family Relations and Human Development
Course Code
FRHD 1020
Professor
c

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Chapter 4 – Wedding Bells…And After - weddings on average cost $22,000 - many couples are marrying at older ages, therefore they have more money to spend, while cohabiting couples wait until they are financially stable to have the wedding of their dreams Society and Marriage - parliament has responsibility for the legal definition of marriage while the provinces are responsible for licensing and registering marriages Wedding ceremony has two functions: 1. the public acknowledgement that a new family has been legally created 2. a ritual making the change in status and roles among all family members - many customs from earlier practices – giving a ring, wearing white, throwing confetti - weddings in pioneer North America  marriages occurred whenever a travelling clergyman came by, would baptize children as well. Many people were married in their own faith, although the government did not recognize the marriages - in 1939, marriages peaked between the time crops were planted and harvested - since 1991, first marriage rates have closely followed economic upswings and downturns  three factors  women’s greater education levels, poor opportunities for young workers, and an increase in couple’s living together - less people marry in Quebec, could be the higher population of priests and nuns, and more common law unions Law and Marriage - in Canada, you cannot marry your sibling, marry more than one person at a time, or marry before 18 (unless there is parental consent) - same-sex marriages became legal in Canada on July 20, 2005 - marriage contract (prenuptial agreement)  a legal document that alters the effect of the law, usually as it applies to property - usually split 50/50, but contracts can change things such as excluding business assets - cohabitation agreement  1. most important aspects pertain to property and support rights. 2. also provides a way to ensure that a partner can inherit from the other partner. 3. Protect partners from future changes in the law Marriage in the Family Cycle - in patriarchal cultures, men work to support the family, and women provide physical and emotional care for members - marriage used to be a rite of passage into adulthood  now it is a commitment to a new family system, accepting roles as a spouse, separating emotionally from the family of origin, gaining a sense of identity as a family (“we-ness”) - must renegotiate as a couple their relationships with previous friends, family and coworkers – can cause conflict - ethnic couples face additional adjustment stresses  different family boundaries, sex roles, individualism vs. family and community ties, relations in in-laws, religion (may be brushed aside until children are born) Why Marry? Status - Canadians do not marry for money or position, but they do consider whether their prospective partner earns enough money so that they can have the lifestyle they want - some use marriage to gain Canadian citizenship - immigrants to Canada may find that the marriage customs and laws in their home country differ from those in Canada (eg. can have more than one wife according to Islam, but only one will be recognized under Canadian law) - serial polygamy  marriage or cohabitation after divorce or separation Economics - in current Canadian family law, the two partners have a duty to support each other financially, either by making money or by caring for the home and children - married and cohabiting couples can cut costs by sharing accommodation Sex - adultery is grounds for a divorce, also cruelty or marriage breakdown (choosing not to have sex) - marriage is designed to regulate sexual behaviour (have only one partner) Children - stability of the marriage relationship allows children to survive physically and to become socialized and productive members of society Identity - changing surnames, forming a unique family culture and worldview, provide a sense of purpose and meaning for each individual - women no longer need to depend on men for economic identity Love and Support - look after emotional needs, a requirement that arises from the idea of romantic love - unfailing love and support Why Marry? - marriage provides “enforceable trust”  the legal provisions for support and sexual fidelity provide the couple a degree of security - marriage has been regarded as superior to other kinds of adult relationships, such as nonsexual friendships, domestic partnership, long-term cohabitation, etc.  dating couples receive a lot of pressure to get married - the whole romantic view of love may also be involved in individual decisions to marry  people suffering from loneliness or difficulties with family of origin may see marriage as an instant cure (although it doesn’t usually work) - marriage ideal has changed since the past  it is now for self-fulfillment and for emotional growth and satisfaction Marriages Yesterday Aboriginal Societies - men hunted, women took care of the home, children and gathered food - marriage in these societies formed links among groups, thus leading to cooperation - many men lost their roles when the reserve system was established, many women took on the role as the primary provider because they often received welfare Victorian Ontario - husband controlled the money (even when they gambled, drank, or kept money from their wives) - women gained some property rights in 1859 Rural Québec - men farmed, women cooked, sewed, etc. - wife joined the husband’s family, men managed most of the finances Marriage Pros and Cons in Past Societies - family was a unit that ensured survival of its members through separate roles for men and women - feminists add that, in societies where status and power are granted to men, women are exploited The “Modernization” of Marriage - in 2006, about 58% of all women aged 15 and over had jobs, making up 47% of the workforce. Among those aged 25 to 54, the majority of both men and women were employed - shift from single-income to dual-income families has created conflict concerning men’s and women’s roles in the family - women are usually the ones to make sacrifices (leave work if child is sick) - men involved in higher level tasks such as cooking are more likely to do other housework as well  husbands tend to do the highest share of housework (35%) when partner’s earnings are equal Roles in Marriage - 4 different roles 1. Conventional Roles - based on the structural-functional notion that en and women have separate spheres of action, and that the home is the proper place for women, just as the labour is for men - advantage  specialization in tasks allows partners to become experts in particular areas - disadvantage  only one wage-earner, little security for women if partners separate, wife has less adult companionship 2. Shared Roles - where both partners work and share household responsibilities - women are sharing the provider role, although on average they contribute less than half the family income because of their lower hourly earnings 3. Dual-Career Roles - both partners are committed to the careers  different from shared roles because career is the priority - when children are born, one either sacrifices their career (for a while), or hires household services 4. Reverse Conventional Roles - breadwinner wife and homemaker husband - in 2005, only 11% of families fit this pattern - this is often temporary - this pattern increases during economic downturns Married, But Not Married - unmarried cohabitation has been common for centuries in some parts of the world (Africa & Sweden) - seen as something for stable than an affair, but not as solid as a marriage - men, young-adults, francophones, those who do not attend religious services, Canadian- born individuals, and th
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