Chapter 7-Memory.docx

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Department
Family Relations and Human Development
Course
FRHD 2060
Professor
Gillian Joseph
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 7: Memory  Memory gives a sense of identity.  Use it daily.  Older adults are stereotyped as people whose memory declines.  Memory intimately involves our sense of self. 3 General Steps 1. Encoding: Process of getting information into the memory system. 2. Storage: Manner in which information is represented and kept in memory. 3. Retrieval: Getting information back out of memory.  No evidence of age difference in how information is organized in storage. Information Processing Revisited Working Memory  Working Memory: Processes and structures involved in holding information in mind and simultaneously using that information to solve a problem, make a decision, or learn new information.  Evidence that older adults perform more poorly on simple span tasks than young adults.  Associated with active information processing.  Age-sensitive factor that affects long-term memory processing.  Plays active, critical, and central role in encoding, storage, and retrieval.  Small capacity.  Older adults perform more poorly when presented with multiple tasks.  Salthouse, Babcock and Shaw argue the loss of ability to hold items in working memory may limit overall cognitive functioning in older adults.  Reduced working memory capacity may result from slower rate of processing.  Differences in working memory; information being used, type of task, gender, and life experiences. Long-Term Memory  Long-Term Memory: Ability to remember extensive amounts of information from a few seconds to a few hours to decades.  Consists of multiple systems that are functionally different and are served by different brain structures.  2 Types: Conscious (explicit) memory and non-conscious (implicit) memory.  Explicit Memory: the deliberate and conscious remembering of information learned and remembered at a specific time. o Declarative Memory: Memory for facts and events. (Divided into episodic and semantic memory) o Episodic Memory: General class of memory having to do with the conscious recollection of information from a specific event/time. o Semantic Memory: Concerns learning and remembering the meaning of words and concepts that are not tied to specific occurrences of events in time. Age Differences in Episodic Memory  Recall: Involves remembering information without hints/cues.  Recognition: Involves selecting previously learned information from among several items.  Adults over 60 do not do as well as younger adults on tests of episodic memory recall.  Differences are smaller on recognition tests between older and younger adults.  Older adults are less efficient at spontaneously using internal study strategies (Imagery).  Failure to use association and repetition may result from processing speed and associative memory.  Allowing older adults to practice/perform similar task before learning a new list improves performance.  Use material that is more familiar to older adults.  Adults can use compensatory strategies to help themselves remember, and beliefs about memory can affect performance.  Older adults are disadvantaged when faced with rapid-paced, disorganized information. Age Differences in Semantic Memory  Spared major age-related deficits in the absence of disease.  No deficits in semantic memory processes. (Language, comprehension, knowledge structure, and general knowledge activation. o Some decline after 85.  Retrieved conceptually as part of our world knowledge.  Accessibility declines with age. o Tip of the tongue experiences. Remote Memory, or Autobiographical Memory  Remote Memory: Information that must be kept for a very long time. o Includes facts learned earlier. (Meaning of words, past life experiences)  Hard to study o Cannot verify facts (if it happened or not) and it may be related to inability to retrieve/failure to learn the information.  Autobiographical Memory: Involves remembering information/events from one’s own life. o Provide personal history and help define who we are.  Retention Function: 20-30 most recent years of a person’s life. o Most likely to remember people/events.  Reminiscence Bump: Around 40. o More likely to retrieve memories from when you were 10-30.  Infantile Amnesia: Small number of memories available from very early childhood.  Permstore: Virtually permanent memories. Implicit Memory  Implicit Memory: Effortless and unconscious recollection of information.  May be an exception to the general finding of age-related decline in long- term memory for new information. Sources of Age Differences in Memory Age Differences in Encoding and Retrieval  Elaborative Rehearsal: Involves making connections b/w incoming information and information already known.  Older adults are less likely to engage in effective ways of processing information both at encoding and at retrieval.  Divided attention disrupts memory performance. Use of Strategies  2 effective strategies: Organize and establish links.  Older adults do not spontaneously organize
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