Chapter 2 summary.docx

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University of Guelph
Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 2110
Agnieszka Woznia

Chapter 2: Current Trends and Issues Integration into the Larger Society Normalization  Key principle behind the trend toward integration of people with exceptionalities into society is normalization - Normalization: a philosophical belief in special education that even individual, even the most exceptional and living environment as close to normal as possible  Controversies have involved deinstitutionalization, self-determination, full inclusion Deinstitutionalization  A social movement of the 1960’s and 1970’s whereby large numbers of persons with intellectual disabilities who were pejoratively labeled as having “mental retardation” and/or mental illness were moved from large mental institutions into smaller community homes or into the homes of their families; recognized as a major catalyst for integrating persons with exceptionalities into society  Cause more children with disabilities to be raised by their families  Lead to increasing recognition that people with and without exceptionalities have the right to exercise self-determination Self- Determination  The ability to make personal choices, regulate one’s own life, and be a self-advocate; a prevailing philosophy in education programming for persons with an intellectual disability  Taking charge of one’s own life  Person- centred planning: planning for person’s self-determination; planning activities and services based on a person’s dreams, aspirations, interests, preferences, strengths, and capacities Integration into Schools Full Inclusion  All students with exceptionalities are placed in their neighborhood schools in general education classrooms for the entire day; general education teachers have the primary responsibility for students with exceptionalities Current Trends  Best practices in special education stipulate that schools place students with exceptionalities in the least restrictive environment (LRE), which is to be chosen from a continuum of alternative placements (CAP) - Least restrictive environment: legal term referring to the fact that exceptional children must be education in as normal an environment as possible - continuum of alternative placements (CAP): the full range of alternative placements, from those assumed to be least restrictive to those considered most restrictive; the continuum ranges from regular classrooms in neighborhood schools to resource rooms, self-contained classes, special day schools, residential schools hospital schools, and home instruction  people have viewed the LRE concept as subordinate to the concept of a free appropriate public education (FAPE) - free appropriate public education (FAPE): the primary intent of federal special education law, that the education of all children with exceptionalities will in all cases be free of cost to parents (ie. At public expense) and appropriate for the particular student  restrictiveness also is determined by what is taught and how it is presented- the instructional and social context of a place  argument can then be made that some special classes or schools are, for some students, less restrictive in terms of their academic, emotional, and social development than is general education classroom  Arguments favoring full inclusion: 1. Labeling people is harmful 2. Separate special education has been ineffective E.g. Pull-out programs: special education programs in which students with exceptionalities leave the general education classroom for part or all of the school day (e.g., to go to special classes or resource room). 3. People with exceptionalities should be viewed as a minority group - The problems that people with exceptionalities are faced are seen as the result of society’s discrimination and prejudice - Disability rights movement: patterned after the civil rights movement of the 1960’s, this is a loosely organized effort to advocate for the rights of people with exceptionalities by lobbying legislators and through other activities. Members view people with exceptionalities as an oppressed minority - Handicapism: a term used by activists who fault the unequal treatment of individuals with exceptionalities. This term is parallel to the term racism, coined by those who fault unequal treatment based on race - People with exceptionalities are an incredibly heterogeneous population. - General goals can be the same for all people with exceptionalities, but specific needs vary greatly 4. Ethics are more important than empirical evidence - Emphasize discrimination against people with exceptionalities - The rationale for full inclusion is based on presumptive moral values, not on research data. - However, the presumed moral values are not based on realities, making them meaningless  Arguments against full inclusion: 1. General educators, special educators, and parents are largely satisfied with and see the continuing need for the continuum of alternative placements 2. General educators are unwilling and/or unable to cope with all students with exceptionalities 3. Justifying full inclusion by asserting that people with exceptionalities are a minority is flawed - Many educators are less than enthusiastic 4. Full- inclusion proponents’ unwillingness to consider empirical evidence is professionally irresponsible 5. The available empirical evidence does not support full inclusion 6. In the absence of data to support one service delivery model, special educators must preserve the continuum of placements Collaboration and Participation in General Education Classrooms Pre- Referral Teams (PRTs) and Response to Intervention  Teams made up of a variety of professionals, especially regular and special educators, who work with regular class teachers to come up with strategies for teaching difficult-to-teach children. Designed to influence regular educators to take ownership of difficult-to-teach students and to minimize inappropriate referrals to special education  PRTs try to keep down the number of refferrals to special education by encouraging general educators to try as many alternative strategies as possible before deciding that difficult-to-teach students need to become the primary responsibility of special educators  Response to intervention (RTI): or response-to-treatment approach. A way of determining whether a student has a learning disability; increasingly intensive levels of instructional intervention are delivered, and if the student does not achieve, at some point he is determined to have a learning disability or is referred for special education evaluation - progress is monitored closely - Different levels of intervention: 1. Verification of quality, researched based instruction with some standard changes and various other supports in the general education classroom - if students performance doesn’t improve they move onto the next level 2. Individual or peer instruction in the areas of difficulty or some other form of remediation rd - if it doesn’t improve move onto the 3 level 3. Referral to special education services Collaborative consultation  An approach in which a special educator and a general educator collaborate to come up with teaching strategies for a student with exceptionalities. The relationship between the two professionals is based on the premises of shared responsibility and equal authority Co- teaching  Co-operative teaching: an approach in which general educators and special educators teach together in the general classroom; it helps the special educator know the context of the regular classroom better  Co- teacher: a special educator working side-by-side with a general educator in a classroom, both teachers providing instruction to the group - Provides a direct meals of special education service delivery that neither stigmatizes nor isolates special education students  Success depends on at least 2 factors: (1) enough time needs to be built into the general and special educators’ schedules for co-operative planning. (2) the 2 teachers’ personalities and working styles need to be compatible Curricula and instructional strategies  Co-operative learning: a teaching approach in which the teacher places students with heterogeneous abilities (e.g., some might have exceptionalities) together to work on assignments  Peer- mediated instruction: the deliberate use of a student’s classroom peer(s) to assist in teaching an academic or social skill  Peer tutoring: a method that can be used to integrate students with exceptionalities in general education classrooms,
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